Table 1

Staff Composition of CPC Practices and Comparison Practices

Staff TypeCPC Practices,a % Comparison Practices in 2016, %
(N = 358)
Difference CPC vs Comparison Practices in 2016b
(N = 461)
(N = 454)
(N = 460)
Primary care cliniciansd1001001000NANA
Primary care physicians (MDs or DOs)NA10099–1981
Specialty physiciansNA1212018–6e
Do bill under own NPINA4450557–7e
Do not bill under own NPINA2119–2163
RNs, excluding RN care managers3545438e403
Behavioral health professionals, clinical psychologists, or social workersNA192910f1217f
Health educators4995f54e
Care managers/care coordinators who coordinate care for patients in the practice with other providers24858460f3648f
Community services coordinators who link patients in the practice with available services and resources in the community454040
Medical assistants9088900873
Practice supervisors or practice managersNA91932876f
Quality improvement specialistsNA11187f126e
Physical or respiratory therapistsNA3309–6f
Laboratory or radiology techniciansNA3133238–5
Health information technologists or EHR specialistsNA16182117f
Administrative staff (reception, medical records, appointment, finance, etc.)99NANANANANA
Accountants or financial managersNA13174g19–1
Staff who work in billing, coding, administrative assistance, medical records, payroll, data entry or analysis, or network administrationNA5153256–3
  • CMS = Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; CPC = Comprehensive Primary Care; DO = Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine; EHR = electronic health record; LPN = licensed practical nurse; LVN = licensed vocational nurse; MD = Doctor of Medicine; NA = not applicable because survey did not ask about that staff type; NP = nurse practitioner; NPI = National Provider Identifier; PA = physician assistant; RN = registered nurse.

  • Notes: Sample is restricted to the 461 CPC practices that responded to the 2012, 2014, and 2016 surveys. Data are from CPC practice surveys administered October through December 2012, April through July 2014, and April through August 2016.

  • a Sample restricted to the 461 CPC practices that responded to each survey wave; because not all practices answered each question, sample size varies over time.

  • b Difference between CPC and comparison practices in percentage points, calculated using regression models that controlled for multiple factors and applied weights to comparison practices that were equal to the product of a matching weight and a nonresponse weight. See Methods for details.

  • c Difference between 2012 (or 2014) and 2016 in percentage points.

  • d Includes primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants who can bill under their own NPI as reported on roster files to CMS. Practices reported this information to CMS each month; numbers for this analysis come from the roster files reported in November of the corresponding year.

  • e Change over time was statistically different from zero at the P =.05 level, 2-tailed t test.

  • f Change over time was statistically different from zero at the P =.01 level, 2-tailed t test.

  • g Change over time was statistically different from zero at the P =.10 level, 2-tailed t test.