Table 1.

Input Data and Descriptive Details for Alternative Approaches for Office-Based Opioid Treatment With Buprenorphine

OBOT-B With Physician-Led Visits4OBOT-B With Nurse-Led Visits34OBOT-B With Shared Visits35OBOT-B With Solo Provider36
Visit frequency (per patient per year), based on interviews, No.
Initial medical evaluation (99204/G0466a)1111
Follow-up medical evaluation, Level 3 (99213/G0467)1511816
Follow-up medical evaluation, Level 4 (99214/G0467)1401
Follow-up nursing visit (99211)01310
Behavioral health intake assessment (90791/G0469; combined with initial medical evaluation)1110
Group psychotherapy (90853), 12 patients per group1919180
Urine drug screen (80305/G0477)19192018
Staff time, based on interviews
Physician hours (SD), per patient per year4.8 (1.2)2.0 (0.5)2.9 (0.7)5.2 (1.3)
Nurse care manager hours (SD), per patient per year1.1 (0.3)4.0 (1.0)4.0 (1.0)
Behaviorist hours (SD), per patient per year2.4 (0.7)2.5 (0.8)3.0 (0.8)
Year 1 additional physician hours (SD)16.0 (5.0)16.0 (5.0)16.0 (5.0)32.0 (10.0)
Year 1 nurse and behaviorist additional setup hours (SD)40.0 (10.0)40.0 (10.0)40.0 (10.0)
Hours (SD) worked per full-time equivalent employee per year372,087.0 (96.0)2,087.0 (96.0)2,087.0 (96.0)2,087.0 (96.0)
  • OBOT-B = office-based opioid treatment with buprenorphine.

  • Note: For insurance rates, we sampled from the probability distribution of Medicare payer prevalence. If a simulated individual was not selected to have Medicare, we sampled from the Medicaid prevalence. If the simulated individual was not selected to have Medicaid, we sampled from the private insurance prevalence. If the individual was not selected to have private insurance, they were assigned as self-pay/uninsured. Payment rates were log-transformed before sampling to adjust for skew and were determined from the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule Look-up Tool, publicly available state Medicaid fee schedules, and the Collective Health database of commercial payment rates.42-44 Appropriate billing codes for OBOT-B were determined in consultation with interviewed primary care practice representatives and informed by guidance from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and National Association of Community Health Centers.36-38

  • a Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) visit codes.