Table 1

Characteristics of Included Studies (N = 8)

Study Author, Year (Location)Condition/Symptoms; Setting; AgeaGroupsbCointerventionsNo. RandomizedcOutcomes Assessed Here (Outcome Assessment Tool)Time of Outcome Assessmentd
Brown et al,23,36,42 2007 (UK)LUTS; outpatient clinic; group 1: 63 years, group 2: 63 yearsSelf-management vs usual careEscalation of medication or surgery at discretion of patient and clinician73/67Symptom severity (IPSS); quality of life (AUA-QoL score); nocturia episodes; 24-hour voiding frequency3, 6, 12 monthse
Chen et al,26 2012 (China)LUTS with BPH; outpatient clinic; group 1: 71 years, group 2: 69 yearsSelf-management vs usual careBPH education119/103Symptom severity (IPSS); quality of life (BPH-QoL score)1 week, 3 months, 6 months
Burgio et al (MOTIVE trial),29,43,44 2011 (USA)OAB: urgency and frequency ± urge incontinence; community and Veterans Affairs Medical Centers; group 1: 63 years, group 2: 64 yearsBehavioral treatment vs antimuscarinic (oxybutynin 5 to 39 mg daily individually titrated)Fluid management handout, bladder diary, and α-blocker73/70Symptom severity (AUA-SI); 24-hour voiding frequency (7-day bladder diary); nocturia episodes8 weeks
Johnson et al (BEDTiMe trial),31,45 2016 (USA)Nocturia; primary care clinics; group 1: 66 years, group 2: 63 years, group 3: 67 yearsBehavioral treatment and exercise therapy vs α-blocker (tamsulosin 0.4 mg nightly) vs behavioral treatment and exercise + α-blocker (tamsulosin 0.4 mg nightly)Antimuscarinic, 5-α reductase inhibitor, sedative-hypnotic as needed23/25/24Nocturia episodes (AUA-SI nocturia question)2, 4, 10, 12 weeks
Hut et al,27 2017 (Netherlands)LUTS: moderate to severe; primary care clinics; 51-82 yearsPelvic floor muscle therapy + behavioral treatment vs α-blocker (tamsulosin 0.4 mg daily)None22/19Symptom severity (IPSS)3 months
Burgio et al (COBALT trial),30,46,47 2018 (USA)OAB: urgency and frequency; community; group 1: 63 years, group 2: 65 years, group 3: 63 yearsBehavioral treatment vs antimuscarinic + α-blocker (tolterodine 4 mg + tamsulosin 0.4 mg daily) vs behavioral treatment + antimuscarinic + α-blocker (tolterodine 4 mg + tamsulosin 0.4 mg daily)None71/68/65Symptom severity (AUA-SI); 24-hour voiding frequency (7-day bladder diary); nocturia episodes (AUA-SI nocturia question)6 weeks
Paterson et al,32 1997 (Australia)Postmicturition dribble; outpatient clinic; 36-83 yearsCounseling vs pelvic muscle exercises vs urethral milkingNone15/15/1 3fUrine loss (weight of incontinence pad)5, 9, 13 weeks
Spigt et al,28 2006 (Netherlands)LUTS: moderate; general practice clinics; 55-75 yearsIncreased water consumption vs placeboNone70/71Symptom severity (IPSS)6 months
  • AUA-QoL = American Urological Association Quality of Life score; AUA-SI = American Urological Association Symptom Index; BEDTiMe = Behavior and Exercise Versus Drug Treatment in Men With Nocturia; BPH = benign prostatic hyperplasia; COBALT = Combined Behavioral and Drug Treatment of Overactive Bladder in Men; IPSS = International Prostate Symptom Score; LUTS = lower urinary tract symptoms; MOTIVE = Male Overactive Bladder Treatment in Veterans; OAB = overactive bladder.

  • aMean or range. Groups are described in next column.

  • bAs described by study authors. Intervention content varies despite similar titles.

  • cGroup 1/group 2/group 3.

  • dFrom randomization unless otherwise indicated.

  • eUnclear whether time from randomization, start of intervention, or end of intervention.

  • fOnly the number analyzed was available (43 of 49 randomized).