Table 5.

Studies’ Use of GIS Methodologies for Each Integration Activity

GIS MethodologyAwarenessAdjustmentAssistanceAlignmentAdvocacy
Geocoded (or obtained geocoded) data from publicly available resourcesYes4,12NoNoYes12Yes12
Geocoded (or obtained geocoded) data and aggregated patients’ residency addresses to census dataYes10-16,18,19,21-23NoNoYes12,22Yes12
Used GIS tools for spatial visualization of EHR and publicly available dataYes8,10,12,13,18-23NoNoNoNo
Created a geospatial data repository of neighborhood-specific online resourcesYes17,24NoYes17,24NoNo
Used data analysts to elicit SDOH dataYes4,13-15,17,18,22-24NoNoNoNo
Engaged social workers to elicit SDOH dataYes8NoNoNoNo
  • EHR = electronic health record; GIS = geographic information systems; SDOH = social determinants of health.