Table 2.

Detailed Patient Characteristics (N = 29)

Case No.RecruitmentInterview Source(s)Age Decile at Death/Inclusion, ySexTiming of InclusionaRequest for PAD?VSED Attempt?Time Between Attempt and First InterviewDied During Attempt?
Group 1: VSED to remain in control (n = 12)
  2NVVEx60sMAfterYesYes3 Months afterYes
  4NVVExx80sMDuringNoYesDay 4 of attemptYes
  5NVVExxx90sMDuringYesYesDay 8 of attemptYes
  6Otherx80sFAfterNoYes2 Years afterYes
10NVVEx80sMAfterYesYes1 Year afterYes
13NVVEx90sFAfterYesYes2 Years afterYes
20Otherx70sFAfterYesYes4 Years afterYes
21Caregiverx70sFBeforeYesYesDay 1 of attemptYesb
25NVVEx70sMBeforeYesNoc(4 Months before PAD)NA
27Caregiverx70sMAfterYesYes3 Weeks afterYes
Group 2: VSED to accelerate natural death (n = 11)
  8NVVEx90sFAfterYesYes8 Months afterYes
  9NVVEx70sFAfterNoYes8 Years afterNo
12NVVEx80sFAfterYesYes15 Months afterYes
14Caregiverxxx90sFDuringYesYesDay 1 of attemptYes
15Internetxx80sFBeforeYesYes4 Months beforeYes
17NVVEx90sMAfterNoYes10 Months afterYes
18Caregiverxx90sMAfterNoYes7 Days afterYes
19Otherx90sFAfterYesYes2 Years afterYes
28Internetx90sMAfterYesYes4 Months afterYes
29Caregiverxxx80sFBeforeNoYesDay 9 of attemptYes
Group 3: VSED as a more acceptable suicide (n = 6)
  1Caregiverxxx60sFDuringYesYes2 Days beforeYes
  3Otherx20sFAfterYesYes4 Days after ending VSEDNo
16NVVEx80sMAfterNoYes9 Years afterNob
23NVVEx40sFAfterNoYes17 Months afterNo
26Internetx30sFBeforeYesYes2 Months beforeNo
  • F = female; M = male; NA = not applicable because VSED was not attempted; NVVE = Nederlandse Vereniging voor Vrijwillige Euthanasie (the Dutch Right-to-Die Association); PAD = physician-assisted dying; VSED = voluntary stopping of eating and drinking.

  • a Relative to VSED attempt.

  • b Died by suicide (ingestion of lethal substances).

  • c Died by PAD.