Table 2

Summary of Estimates from 4 Methods

StudySocial CircumstancesBehavior PatternsMedical Care
McGinnis,8 Schroeder615407-10
Newhouse10    NE    NE0-10
  • LGCM = latent growth curve modeling; NE = not estimated.

  • a Includes 19% based on poverty index + 10% from age, race, sex adjustment.

  • b Based on a population health index that includes obesity, smoking status, and self-reported poor physical health days/month.

  • c Low estimated from Hierarchical Condition Cluster (HCC); high estimated from HCC adjusted for demographic variables.

  • d Low estimates based on Krieger’s suggestion that reported numbers should be adjusted by the percentage of variance in outcomes accounted for LCGM by the model.13 This was accomplished by multiplying each estimate by 54%.