Table 1

Associations Between Loneliness and Geospatial Variables, by Zip Code Tabulation Area of Residence

Pearson CorrelationP Value
Economic variables
Poverty (<200% federal poverty line)0.350.02
Social Deprivation Index scorea0.42<0.01
Unemployed, %0.49<0.01
Less than high school education, %0.45<0.01
Median household income–0.290.02
Demographic variables
Median age–0.070.52
Female/male ratio0.27<0.01
Race (% black)0.18<0.01
Ethnicity (% Hispanic)–0.130.27
Linguistically isolated households, %b0.040.76
Household size 1 person, %0.290.01
Average household size–0.070.53
Transportation variables
Mean travel time to work0.15<0.01
Households with no vehicle, %0.34<0.01
Health care access variables
Without health insurance, %0.12<0.01
Without usual source of health care, %0.37<0.01
  • a The Social Deprivation Index is a composite measure of social and material deprivation encompassing education, housing, transportation, and poverty.

  • b Households are considered linguistically isolated if all individuals ages 14 years and older in the household speak a language other than English and none speaks English well.