Table 1.

Characteristics of Included Trials

Author, YearSetting, CountryPatient GroupHealth OutcomePatients Entered No.Treatment Allocation*Outcome AssessmentDurationPercent Lost to Follow-up
USA = United States of America; OPD = outpatient department; Aus = Australia; UK = United Kingdom; GP = patient attending in general/family practice; CHD = coronary heart disease.
* Allocation concealment at treatment allocation was adequate if a clear method (for example central randomization, sealed envelopes or random numbers) was reported.
† Allocation concealment at outcome assessment was adequate if it was reported that assessors were unaware of participants’ study group allocation.
‡ Numbers of patients analyzed in the trial.
Interventions delivered directly to patients
Greenfield et al, 198522Hospital OPD, USAChronic disease (peptic ulcer)Subjective45InadequateAdequate8 weeks<30
Greenfield et al, 198814Hospital OPD, USAChronic disease (diabetes)Objective73InadequateAdequate12 weeks<30
Kaplan et al, 198921Hospital OPD, USAChronic disease (hypertension)Objective105InadequateInadequate12 weeksMissing
Thompson et al, 1990a20Primary care, USAOther disease (gynecology)Subjective66AdequateInadequateImmediate>30
Thompson et al, 1990b20Primary care, USAOther disease (gynecology)Subjective105AdequateInadequateImmediate>30
Butow et al, 199423Hospital OPD, AusOther disease (cancer)Subjective142InadequateInadequate3 weeks>30
Street et al, 199524Hospital OPD, USAOther disease (breast cancer)Subjective60InadequateInadequate1 week<30
McCann & Weinman, 199625Primary care, UKGP non specific diseaseSatisfaction120AdequateAdequateImmediate<30
Davison & Degner, 199726Hospital OPD, CanadaOther disease (prostate cancer)Subjective60AdequateInadequate6 weeks<30
Kravitz et al, 199727Primary care, USAOther disease (not specified)Satisfaction396InadequateInadequateImmediate<30
Fleissig et al, 199928Hospital OPD, UKOther disease (not specified)Satisfaction1,683InadequateAdequateImmediate>30
Interventions delivered via practitioners
Thomas, 197829Primary care, UKGP nonspecific diseaseSubjective200InadequateInadequate1 month<30
Schulman & Swain, 198030Hospital OPD, USAChronic disease (hypertension)Satisfaction105InadequateInadequateImmediate<30
Evans et al, 198731Primary care, AusGP nonspecific diseaseSubjective400InadequateInadequate4 weeksMissing
Thomas, 198732Primary care, UKGP nonspecific diseaseSubjective200InadequateInadequate2 weeks<30
Olsson et al, 198933Primary care, SwedenGP nonspecific diseaseSubjective100AdequateAdequate2 days<30
Savage, 199039Primary care, UKGP nonspecific diseaseSubjective350InadequateInadequate1 week>30
Evans et al, 199235Hospital OPD, AusOther disease (not specified)SatisfactionMissingInadequateAdequateImmediateMissing
Roter et al, 199513Primary care, USAGP non specific diseaseSubjective648InadequateAdequate6 months<30
Smith et al, 199536Primary care, USAOther disease (not specified)Satisfaction181AdequateInadequateImmediateMissing
Meland et al, 199737,38Primary care, NorwayRisk of disease (CHD)Objective127InadequateInadequate1 year<30
Kinmonth et al, 199839Primary care, UKChronic disease (diabetes)Objective360AdequateAdequate1 year>30
Pill et al, 199840Primary care, UKChronic disease (diabetes)Objective190AdequateAdequate18 months<30
Smith et al, 199841Primary care, USAGP nonspecific diseaseSubjectiveMissingInadequateAdequate4 weeksMissing
Peters et al, 199942Primary care, UKOther disease (cervical dysplasia)Subjective270AdequateAdequate4 months<30
Thom et al, 199943Primary care, USAGP nonspecific diseaseOther health related414InadequateInadequate6 months<30
Brown Betz et al, 199944Primary care, USAGP nonspecific diseaseSatisfaction4,941AdequateAdequate3 months<30
Interventions delivered both to the patient and to the practitioner
Lewis et al, 199145Primary care, USAGP nonspecific diseaseSubjective141InadequateAdequateImmediate
Katon et al, 199546Primary care, USAChronic disease (depression)Subjective217InadequateAdequate7 months
Rubenstein et al, 199547Primary care, USAGP nonspecific diseaseSubjective557AdequateAdequate6 months
Joos et al, 199648Hospital OPD, USAChronic disease (not specified)Other health related409InadequateInadequate12 months<30
Hornberger et al, 199749Primary care, USAGP nonspecific diseaseSubjective201InadequateInadequateImmediate<30
Wagner et al, 199750Hospital OPD, USAChronic disease (epilepsy)Satisfaction163AdequateInadequateImmediate<30
Maly et al, 199951Primary care, USAChronic disease not specified)Subjective265AdequateAdequate2 weeks<30
Reuben et al, 199952Community, USAOther disease (multiple types)Objective363AdequateAdequate15 months<30