Table 4.

Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis of Attitudes Toward Treatment Behaviors and Subjective Social Norms (Internal Factors) and Intent Not to Accept a Physician’s Diagnosis of Depression

Odds Ratio (95% CI)
FactorsUnadjustedAdjusted*
CI = confidence interval.
* Adjusted for all of the above and sex, age, ethnic group, treatment history, family history of depression, CES-D score, anxiety symptoms, panic symptoms, alcohol abuse symptoms, attitudes and social norms.
P ≤.05.
P ≤.01.
§ P ≤.001.
Beliefs and attitudes toward treatment
Biological changes in the brain cause depression
    Strongly agree1.001.00
    Agree1.55 (1.36 - 1.78) §1.22 (1.04 - 1.43)
    Neither2.15 (1.87 - 2.47) §1.35 (1.15 - 1.59) §
    Disagree3.72 (3.05 - 4.53) §1.99 (1.58 - 2.49) §
    Strongly disagree4.54 (3.34 – 6.18) §1.89 (1.32 - 2.71)
Medications are effective
    Strongly agree1.001.00
    Agree2.38 (2.01 -2.84)§1.78 (1.46 - 2.17)§
    Neither5.34 (4.47 - 6.38)§3.69 (3.00 - 4.56)§
    Disagree8.94 (7.10-11.25)§5.29 (4.06 - 6.92)§
    Strongly disagree11.22 (8.26-15.23)§6.50 (4.57 - 9.26)§
Treatment preferences
    Medications1.001.00
    No Preference1.54 (1.36 - 1.75) §1.26 (1.09 - 1.45) §
    Counseling1.83 (1.65 - 2.04) §1.24 (1.09 - 1.41) §
Medications are addictive
    Strongly disagree1.01.0
    Disagree0.94 (0.71 - 1.25)0.78 (0.55 - 1.09)
    Neither1.38 (1.06 - 1.80)0.76 (0.55 - 1.04)
    Agree1.99 (1.52 - 2.60)§0.98 (0.71 - 1.36)
    Strongly agree2.13 (1.59 - 2.85) §0.94 (0.66 - 1.33)
Subjective social norms
Embarrassed if my friends knew
    Strongly disagree1.001.00
    Disagree1.10 (0.91 - 1.33)1.09 (0.86 - 1.38)
    Neither1.73 (1.43 - 2.09) §1.52 (1.20 - 1.93) §
    Agree2.07 (1.73 - 2.48) §1.71 (1.36 - 2.17) §
    Strongly agree2.71 (2.25 - 3.27) §2.27 (1.76 - 2.93) §
Employer should not know
    Strongly disagree1.001.00
    Disagree1.09 (0.83 - 1.46)1.17 (0.83 - 1.66)
    Neither1.65 (1.26 - 2.15) §1.31 (0.95 - 1.81)
    Agree1.76 (1.36 - 2.26) §1.26 (0.92 - 1.74)
    Strongly agree2.03 (1.58 - 2.62) §1.16 (0.85 - 1.60)
My family would be disappointed
    Strongly disagree1.001.00
    Disagree1.11 (0.96 - 1.28)0.94 (0.79 - 1.11)
    Neither1.79 (1.55 - 2.07) §1.42 (1.19 - 1.68) §
    Agree1.85 (1.59 - 2.14) §1.48 (1.24 - 1.77) §
    Strongly agree2.48 (2.09 - 2.94) §1.82 (1.46 - 2.25) §
Past treatment behavior
Past treatment experience
    No prior treatment1.001.00
    Both treatments unhelpful0.66 (0.54 - 0.81) §0.72 (0.57 - 0.92) §
    Medication Helpful0.43 (0.37 - 0.51) §0.67 (0.56 - 0.81) §
    Medication not helpful0.57 (0.44 - 0.73) §0.63 (0.48 - 0.84)
    Counseling helpful0.53 (0.43 - 0.66) §0.58 (0.46 - 0.74) §
    Counseling not helpful0.68 (0.56 - 0.82) §0.81 (0.66 - 1.00)
    Medication helpful/counseling not helpful0.41 (0.32 - 0.53) §0.79 (0.60 - 1.04)
    Counseling helpful/medication not helpful0.58 (0.43 - 0.78) §0.73 (0.52 - 1.02)
    Both treatments helpful0.37 (0.29 - 0.46) §0.67 (0.52 - 0.85) §
Family history of depression
    No1.001.00
    Yes0.68 (0.62 - 0.75) §0.93 (0.84 - 1.03)