Table 1

Summary of the Data Sources and Analysis Methods

StudyPopulationData SourceAnalysis Method
McGinnis,8 Schroeder6US populationUS Vital StatisticsExamined PAF for a range of risk factors associated with defined causes of death. Summed PAF for each determinant across various causes of death
Wennberg11US Medicare recipients aged ≥65 years enrolled in Parts A and B in 2007Medicare claims. Deaths among Medicare recipients in 2007Evaluated variation in use of health care and age, sex, and race adjusted mortality across 306 HRRs. Applied regression with adjustments for medical diagnoses, poverty, and a behavioral index
Park12US population aggregated at the county level2010-2013 County Health Rankings and Roadmaps database included 2,996 (95%) of US countiesLGCM used to estimate health outcome, which was a combination of morbidity and mortality. Four factors (behaviors, clinical care, social/economic, and physical environment) used to explain health outcomes with statistical adjustment for yearly variation and state specific characteristics
Newhouse102,750 families including 7,700 individuals aged <65 years randomly assigned to different levels of cost sharinga and followed 3-5 yearsHealth surveys and physical examinations administered at the beginning and end of the studyComparisons of experimental groups for self-reported outcomes. Similar comparisons for clinical diagnoses, including hypertension, vision, dental health, and serious symptoms
  • HRR = hospital referral region; LGCM = latent growth curve modeling; PAF = population attributable fraction; US = United States.

  • a Levels of cost sharing were 0% (free medical care), 25%, 50%, or 95%.