Variable | Independent | HCO-Employed | P Value |
---|---|---|---|

HCO = health care organization. | |||

Note: A χ^{2} 2-sided significance was used for sex and age. An independent samples t test (equal variance not assumed) was used for hours worked per week, number in work group, years in practice, and years in present practice, The N varies from 70 to 75 for the independent group and from 470 to 496 for the HCO-employed group because respondents left some items blank. | |||

Sex, female, % | 24 | 34 | .09 |

Age <45 years, % | 49 | 58 | .17 |

Hours worked per week, mean ± SD | 54.2 ± 13.8 | 50.5 ± 12.6 | .04 |

Number in work group, mean ± SD | 9.4 ± 7.8 | 14.9 ± 35.8 | .004 |

Years in practice, mean ± SD | 14.4 ± 7.8 | 12.2 ± 8.1 | .03 |

Years in present practice, mean ± SD | 12.3 ± 8.7 | 8.2 ± 8.7 | .001 |