Table 6.

Significant Differences in Postpartum Symptoms by Women’s Breastfeeding Status

Postpartum SymptomsBreastfeeding No. (%) (n = 480)Not Breastfeeding No. (%) (n = 236)P Value of t Test or χ2
* The mean difference in total symptoms and nonbreastfeeding symptoms (ie, all symptoms except breast discomfort, nipple soreness, and breast infection) by breastfeeding status was evaluated by t test.
† The difference in the frequency of women reporting any symptom by breastfeeding status was evaluated by χ2 test.
Continuous variables*
    Mean number of total symptoms6.65.1<.001
    Mean number of nonbreastfeeding symptoms5.24.5.003
Discrete variables
    One or more breast symptoms (discomfort, nipple soreness, infection)377 (78.0)115 (48.7)<.001
    Fatigue323 (67.3)134 (56.8).006
    Decreased desire for sex284 (59.2)91 (38.6)<.001
    Back or neck pain223 (46.5)87 (36.9).015
    Constipation152 (31.7)44 (18.6)<.001
    Hemorrhoids134 (27.9)35 (14.8)<.001
    Excessive sweating126 (26.3)39 (16.5).004
    Hot flashes67 (14.0)18 (7.6).008
    Decreased appetite136 (28.3)88 (37.3).020
    Runny/stuffy nose115 (24.0)74 (31.4).040