Table 1

Types of Food Insecurity Interventions and Quality Scores for Included Studies (N = 23)

StudyScreened for FI? Y/N (Screening Tool)aType of Intervention Quality (GRADE)
Referral Food
Education & PassiveNavigation & ActiveFood VouchersFood
Beck,31 2014Y (2-item Hunger VS)Low
Berkowitz,23 2018NModerate
Bryce,32 2017NLow
Cavanagh,25 2017NModerate
Cohen,17 2017Y (1-item screener)Low
Fleegler,35 2007Y (TOA: 6-item USDA FSS)Very low
Fox,29 2016Y (2-item Hunger VS)Very low
Freedman,33 2013YVery low
Freedman,26 2014Y (1-item screener)Low
Gany,38 2015Y (18-item USDA FSS)Very low
Garg,16 2007Y (WE CARE: 1-item screener)Moderate
Garg,22 2015Y (WE CARE: Baseline 18-item USDA FSS; F/U 1-item screener)Moderate
Hassan,37 2015Y (TOA: age specific USDA FSS)Low
Knowles,34 2018Y (2-item Hunger VS)Very low
Martel,40 2018Y (2-item Hunger VS)Very low
Morales,24 2016YModerate
Nguyen,27 2016NVery low
Patel,30 2018NLow
Saxe-Custack,36 2018NVery low
Sege,21 2015Y (SEEK: 2-item screener)Moderate
Smith,39 2017Y (6-item USDA FSS)bVery low
Watt,18 2015NVery low
Weintraub,28 2010NLow
  • FI = food insecurity; F/U = follow up; GRADE = Grading Recommedations Assessment Development and Evaluation; N = no; SEEK = Safe Environment for Every Kid49; TOA = The Online Advocate (now known as HelpSteps)48; 2-item Hunger VS = 2-item Hunger Vital Sign; USDA FSS = United States Department of Agriculture-Food Security Survey; WE CARE = Well Child Care, Evaluation, Community Resources, Advocacy, Referral, Education16; Y = yes.

  • a Type of food insecurity screening tool used, if noted in manuscript.

  • b Only a subset of participants, those with diabetes mellitus, were eligible for food.