Table 2.

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria of Each Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)

RCTInclusion CriteriaExclusion Criteria
BP = blood pressure; BMI = body mass index; ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme.
Appel et al14Persons not taking antihypertensive medication who had a systolic BP of 120–159 mm Hg and diastolic BP of 80–95 mm Hg
 Age ≥ 25 y
 BMI of 18.5–45.0 kg/m2Regular use of drugs that affect BP
 Renal damage and/or diabetes
 Use of weight-loss medications
 Previous cardiovascular event
 Congestive heart failure
 Cancer diagnosis or treatment in past 2 y
 Consumption of alcoholic drinks > 2 L/wk
 Pregnancy, planned pregnancy, or lactation
Hansson et al15Age 50–80 y
 Hypertension and diastolic BP
 between 100 mm Hg and
 115 mm HgNone reported
Wing et al16Age 65–84 yAny life-threatening illness
Free of hypertensive drugs for ≥ 1 wk before study-entry visitsContraindication to ACE inhibitor or diuretic
Systolic BP of ≥ 160 mm Hg or diastolic BP of ≥ 90 mm Hg (if systolic BP was ≥140 mm Hg)Plasma creatinine concentration >2.5 mg/dL
 Malignant hypertension
Absence of cardiovascular events within previous 6 moDementia
ALLHAT study17Age ≥55 y
 Stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension
 At least 1 additional risk factor for coronary heart diseaseHistory of hospitalized or treated symptomatic heart failure and/or known left ventricular ejection fraction of < 35%
Sacks et al18Age ≥22 y
 Average systolic BP of 120–159 mm Hg and average BP of 80–95 mm HgHeart disease
 Renal insufficiency
 Poorly controlled hyperlipidemia or diabetes mellitus
 Diabetes requiring insulin
 Special dietary requirements
 Intake of alcoholic drinks > 14/wk
 Use of antihypertensive drugs or other medications that would affect BP or nutrient metabolism