Table 4.

Comparison of Change Facilitators and Barriers

LevelFacilitators (Where Present)Barriers (Where Present)
RN = registered nurse; PPT = prepared practice team; EMR = electronic medical record; CCM = Chronic Care Model.
ClinicStrong clinic leadership
 Chief physicians as role models for chronic care and doing change
 Supervisor support of this work
 Development of teams
 Enhancement of trust and communication
 Promotion of stable work relationships
 Strong RN leadership of PPT teams and their work
 Physicians’ passive assent to change
 Previsit work by nurses and clerical staff, making life easier for physicians
 Staff unwilling to change leave clinic
 Natural changes (clinic remodeling, EMR implementation) that force changes in work relationships and flowsPhysician, staff, and clinic cultures not supportive of the desired changes
 Chief physicians relatively uninterested in or uncommitted to chronic care and the CCM
 Variable, often limited, leadership guidance of PPT development
 Few systematic change skills, strategies, or structures
 No standardization of PPT work flows (within and across clinics)
 No agreement on need for care standardization
 Physicians generally not engaged in the change process; change is built around them
 Large medical group size that filters and buffers external change motivators, eg, business competition
 Demands of simultaneous EMR implementation
 Union rules inhibit role changes
 Clinic staff are accountable to supervisors, not to physicians
 Change fatigue and apathy resulting from recent scope and pace of changes
Organization leadersClear articulation of a new conceptualization of the care cycle (previsit, visit, postvisit, between visit)
 Awareness of clinic attitudes and actions
 Clear, shared, and long-term commitment to need for change
 Flexible strategies for change
 Realistic expectations for minimal early measurable results
 Recognized need to change the foundation before building the houseOrganizational culture not supportive of the desired changes
 Lack of specific details and examples of desired care changes
 Broad scale of change required, encompassing multiple organizational facets
 Too many simultaneous priorities and changes
 Change goals and outcomes unclear
 Change process fuzzy and uncoordinated
 Lack of useful measures of change with periodic measurement
 Added complexities of grant funder expectations and distractions
 Leaders face multiple uncertainties and distractions, leading to limited change prototypes and measures, limited push, and accountability