Table 3.

Multivariate, Multilevel Regression Model Showing Association of Clinician Use of Chronic Care Model Elements and 2 Measures of Diabetes Care Intermediate Outcomes

ParameterParameter Estimate*SEP Value
CCM = Chronic Care Model; HDL = high-density lipoprotein.
* The parameter estimates indicate the strength of the association in each model. Each unit difference in clinician-reported frequency of CCM use (eg, from “rarely” to “occasionally”) is associated with a change in the dependent variable (hemoglobin A1c value or lipid ratio) equal to the parameter estimate.
† Analyzed as a continuous variable. Covariates included patient age, patient race/ethnicity, clinician sex, and clinician specialty.
‡ Analyzed as a continuous variable. Covariates included patient age and marital status.
Hemoglobin A1c value
Patient age−0.00820.0041.049
Patient race/ethnicity: white (vs nonwhite)−0.59900.1290<.001
Clinician sex: female−0.33710.1318.01
Clinician specialty
    Physician’s assistant−0.61520.4299.16
    General internal medicine0.19010.1263.14
    Family physician (reference)
Clinician score for use of CCM−0.30130.0879.002
Lipid ratio (total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol)
Patient age−0.01480.0035<.001
Patient marital status: married0.15890.0967.10
Clinician score for use of CCM−0.16630.0690.02