Table 1.

Trials of Antihypertensive Agents With Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes

Trial, yearRacial Subgroups No. (%)Study SitesDrug InterventionFollow-up Mean, yInclusion CriteriaSubgroups ComparedBaseline Differences (vs Whites)
ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ASA = acetylsalicylic acid; BMI = body mass index; CAD/CHD = coronary artery (heart) disease; CKD = chronic kidney disease; CV = cardiovascular; CVA = cerebrovascular accident; CVD = cardiovascular disease; DM = diabetes mellitus; HTN = hypertension; LVH = left ventricular hypertrophy; TIA = transient ischemic attack.
Characteristics of studies with racial outcome data
ALLHAT,2831 2002White 19,977 (47)
 Black 15,085 (35.5)
 Hispanic 5,299 (12.5)
 Other 2,058 (5)USA, CanadaChlorthalidone vs doxazosin, amlodipine, or lisinopril4.9Aged >55 y, HTN, prior CAD, or 1 risk factorBlacks, nonblacksBlacks: age, baseline CVD, DM, LVH (P<.001)
INVEST,32,33 2003White 10,925 (48.3)
 Black 3,029 (13.4)
 Asian 149 (0.8)
 Hispanic 8,045 (35.6) Other 428 (1.9)North & Latin America, EuropeVerapamil-based vs atenolol-based2.7Aged >50 y, HTN, known CADBlacks, Hispanics, white, otherHispanic & black: age, DM, ASA/statin use (P<.001)
 Blacks: LVH, BMI, CKD (P<.001)
PROGRESS,34,35 2001White 3,770 (62)
 Asian 2,335 (38)Europe, China, JapanPerindopril ± indapamide vs placebo3.9No age limits, previous CVA or TIA ± HTNAsians, westerners
VALUE,3638 2004White 13,643 (89.1)
 Black 658 (4.3)
 Asian 535 (3.5)
 Other 474 (3.1)USA, Western EuropeValsartan-based vs amlodipine-based4.2Aged >50 y, HTN, 2-3 CV risk factorsAsian, blacks, white, other
LIFE,3941 2002White 8,503 (92)
 Black 533 (6)
 Asian 43 (1)
 Hispanic 100 (1)Europe, USALosartan vs atenolol4.8Aged 55-80 y, HTN, LVHBlacks, nonblacksBlacks: age, DM, CKD, smoking (P <.001)
Studies In single racial/ethnic group
NICS-EH42Asian 414 (100)Japan, multiple centersNicardipine vs trichlormethiazide5.0Aged >60 y, HTN, no prior CVD
JMIC,43 2004Asian 1,650 (100)Japan, multiple centersNifedipine vs ACE inhibitors (varied types)3.0Aged <75 y, HTN, known
FEVER,44 2005Asian 9,711 (100)China, multiple centersHydrochlorothiazide + feldopine vs hydrochlorothiazide + placebo3.3Aged 50-79 y, HTN, 2 CV risk factors