Table 1.

Published Studies of Pedometer-Based Walking Interventions That Met Inclusion Criteria

Study (Year)No. of Participantsa (Study Design)PopulationDropout No. (%)Weight-Related Inclusion CriteriaBaseline BMI Mean ± SD (Range), kg/m2Intervention DurationBehavioral CounselingGoal Setting in Pedometer InterventionStep-Count Logging and Reporting
BMI = body mass index; RCT = randomized controlled trial.
a Number represents only study completers and, for RCTs, only participants randomized to the pedometer intervention arm of the study.
b Calculation was based on other data in the report.
Engel and Lindner18 (2006)22 (RCT)Sedentary men and women with type 2 diabetes with a mean age of 60.5 years2 (8)None32.7 ± 5.56 monthsIntensive coaching program including 6 individual sessions and a monthly newsletterStep-count walking goals chosen by the participantTime spent walking and step counts were recorded in a glucose and exercise log
Wilson et al19 (2005)22 (Cohort)African American breast cancer survivors with a mean age of 55 years2 (8)None32.7 (25.2–47.2)8 weeksEight 75-minute small group weekly sessions based on Health Belief ModelAssigned progressive step goalsWalks were scheduled and steps were recorded on a scheduler/tracker form and reported to study staff weekly
Miyatake et al20 (2002)31 (Cohort)Japanese men aged 32 to 59 yearsNot reportedBMI >25 kg/m228.6 ± 2.21 yearNot reportedIncrease daily baseline step count by 1,000 stepsNot reported
Schneider et al21 (2006)38 (Cohort)Sedentary overweight or obese but otherwise healthy adults aged 30 to 60 years18 (32)BMI >25 kg/m233.5 ± 5.036 weeksInformation sessions every other week for 2 months, then once a monthGradually increase daily step count to 10,000 steps/daySteps were recorded daily in an activity log
Tudor-Locke et al22 (2004)24 (RCT)Overweight or obese, sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes and a mean age of 52.7 years6 (20)None34.1 ± 6.116 weeksCounseling based on self-efficacy and social support; 4 weekly group meetings and a program manualIndividualized step-count goal setting based on exercises in the manualSteps per day were recorded in a calendar log
Swartz et al23 (2003)18 (Cohort)Overweight or obese women with family history of type 2 diabetes1 (5)BMI >25 kg/m235.0 ± 5.18 weeksPedometer and step-count goal instructions onlyAccumulate 10,000 steps/daySteps and exercise were recorded in an activity log
Moreau et al24 (2001)15 (RCT)Sedentary, postmenopausal women with stage 1 hypertension and a mean age of 54 yearsNot reportedNone>25b24 weeksPedometer and step-count goal instructions onlyStep-count goals gradually increased to a target of 3 km over baselineDaily step counts were recorded on log sheets that were collected every 2 weeks
Hultquist et al25 (2005)31 (RCT)Sedentary, healthy, nonsmoking women aged 33 to 55 years0 (0)BMI <40 kg/m230 ± 6.44 weeksPedometer and step-count goal instructions only10,000 daily stepsStep counts were recorded on a pedometer with a 7-day memory and collected weekly
Chan et al26 (2004)106 (Cohort)Sedentary workers with a mean age of 43 years71 (40)None29.5 ± 5.912 weeksCounseling based on self-efficacy and social support; 4 weekly group meetingsIndividualized goal settingStep-count goals and tracking were logged on a Web site