Table 6.

Comparison of Organizational Attributes and Market Orientation Across Practices

Minimum Pairwise Adjusted P Value
MeasurePractices With NPsa (n=9)Practices With PAsa (n=9)Practices With Physicians Onlya (n=28)Practice LevelbStaff Levelc
NP = nurse-practitioner; PA = physician’s assistant; SEM = standard error of the mean.
Note: Organizational attributes are expressed as mean (SEM) scores on scales ranging from 1 to 5, where higher scores indicate stronger staff endorsement of the attribute; market orientation is expressed as the No. (%) of practices that had above-median staff ratings for being market driven.
a Unadjusted practice-level scores.
b Calculated using analysis of covariance with practice-averaged scores as the response variable, controlling for practice size.
c Calculated using hierarchical models with staff members’ responses as the response variable, controlling for staff member sex and role within the practice as well as practice size.
d Shows marginal significance between physician-only practices and practices with NPs. No other pairwise comparisons had P values <.05.
Organizational attributes, mean (SEM)
    Busyness3.16d (0.20)3.18 (0.20)2.66d (0.12).03d.04d
    Practicewide decision making3.31 (0.21)3.06 (0.20)3.48 (0.12).55.28
    Participation of nurses in decision making3.71 (0.19)3.49 (0.17)3.79 (0.11).82.66
    Communication3.30 (0.21)3.02 (0.20)3.57 (0.12).31.21
    Change3.03 (0.16)3.24 (0.17)3.01 (0.10).68.22
Market orientation, No. (%)3 (33)6 (67)14 (50).26.24