Table 2.

Verification Techniques Used in Qualitative Research

TriangulationUsing multiple data sources in an investigation to produce understanding
Peer review/ debriefingThe “process of exposing oneself to a disinterested peer in a manner paralleling an analytical session and for the purpose of exploring aspects of the inquiry that might otherwise remain only implicit within the inquirer’s mind”
External audits/ auditingAuditing involves having a researcher not involved in the research process examine both the process and product of the research study. The purpose is to evaluate the accuracy and evaluate whether the findings, interpretations, and conclusions are supported by the data
Member checkingData, analytic categories, interpretations, and conclusions are tested with members of those groups from whom the data were originally obtained. This can be done both formally and informally, as opportunities for member checks may arise during the normal course of observation and conversation