Table 2.

Results of Photograph Interpretations (n = 1,040) by Primary Care Clinician and Ophthalmologist

Reading Outcome, All PatientsOphthalmologistPrimary Care ClinicianSensitivitySpecificityPPVNPV
NPV = negative predictive value; PPV = positive predictive value.
a For identification of any diabetic retinopathy, regardless of whether it needed referral.
b Other abnormalities include laser and other retinal scarring.
c Some patients were referred for more than 1 finding, but each patient referred was counted only once.
Diabetic retinopathy, overalla1131560.850.940.620.98
    Vitreous hemorrhage571.00.9970.711.0
    Intraretinal microvascular abnormality530.20.9980.330.996
    Venous beading6110.500.9950.270.997
        2 quadrants490.500.990.220.99
    Intraretinal hemorrhage98900.730.980.800.97
    Lipid exudates561080.960.950.500.99
        1/3 disc diameter39520.820.980.620.99
        Disc diameter16290.940.990.520.99
Referred for other abnormalityb39260.660.970.380.96
Referred for diabetic retinopathy46690.890.970.590.97
Referred for inadequate photograph3022960.870.960.890.95
Referred, totalc3443560.900.930.870.95