Table 1.

Distributions of Variables Used to Predict Limited Health Literacy and Results of Bivariate Analyses (N = 225)

VariableResponse OptionsCodeaNo. (%)bof PatientsCrude ORcP Valuec
OR=odds ratio; ref=reference group; GED=general equivalency diploma.
a Represents point values used in the logistic model.
b Unless otherwise noted.
c Crude odds ratios and P values are of association with limited health literacy. Exact tests were used for categorical variables; rank-sum test was used for ordinal variables.
d Odds ratios for some variable values are not reported because the contingency table contained a zero cell.
e Median (interquartile range).
f Mean (SD).
g Age data were normally distributed. P value was determined with a t test.
Highest education level attainedMaster’s degree or greater−420 (8.9)d<.001
Bachelor’s degree (≥4 years of college)−325 (11.1)0.18
Associate’s degree (2 years of college)−222 (9.8)0.21
Some college−157 (25.3)0.25
12th grade (GED or equivalent)065 (28.9)(ref)
11th grade or less132 (14.2)3.44
6th grade or less24 (1.8)13.25
Self-rated reading abilityExcellent or very good0112 (49.8)(ref)<.001
Good171 (31.6)6.66
Okay235 (15.6)21.47
Poor37 (3.1)d
Terrible or very poor40 (0)
Reading enjoyment1–10Natural8 (6–10)e.01
Single-Item Literacy Screener37Never0140 (62.2)(ref)<.001
Rarely147 (20.9)3.91
Sometimes222 (9.8)4.85
Often310 (4.4)24.75
Always46 (2.7)d
SexMale171 (31.6)2.20.04
RaceWhite99 (44.0)(ref)
Black101 (44.9)4.83<.001
Other25 (11.1)2.95.11
AgeYearsNatural53.76 (12.8)f.01g