Table 2.

Characteristics of Study Participants

CharacteristicHome (n=138)Telephone (n=139)Usual-Care Control (n=138)
a Percentages exceed 100 because many participants had more than 1 condition.
b Scored on a range from 0 to 48.
Age, mean (SD), years59.8 (11.2)61.2 (11.6)60.1 (11.7)
Female, No. (%)108 (78)109 (78)104 (75)
Race/ethnicity, No. (%)
    Non-Hispanic white103 (75)110 (79)115 (83)
    Black20 (15)11 (8)15 (11)
    Other14 (9)14 (10)7 (5)
    Declined to answer1 (1)4 (3)1 (1)
Education level, No. (%)
    High school or less19 (14)20 (14)22 (16)
    Some college53 (38)50 (36)58 (42)
    College graduate or greater66 (47)65 (47)57 (41)
    Declined to answer0 (0)4 (3)1 (1)
Income level, No. (%)
    <40,00041 (30)42 (31)44 (32)
    40,000–79,99942 (30)37 (27)43 (31)
    ≥80,00022 (16)27 (20)22 (16)
    Declined to answer33 (24)33 (24)29 (21)
Married, No. (%)79 (57)79 (57)76 (55)
Uninsured, No. (%)3 (2)5 (4)2 (2)
Chronic conditions, No. (%)
    155 (40)72 (51)43 (31)
    251 (37)40 (29)65 (47)
    318 (13)21 (15)21 (15)
    >414 (10)6 (4)9 (7)
Study diagnoses, No. (%)a
    Arthritis83 (60)73 (52)77 (55)
    Depression59 (43)64 (46)70 (51)
    Diabetes64 (46)50 (36)58 (42)
    Asthma34 (25)25 (18)39 (28)
    Chronic obstructive lung disease15 (11)11 (8)17 (12)
    Congestive heart failure17 (12)17 (12)14 (10)
Personality factors, mean (SD)b
    Neuroticism20.6 (9.9)22.1 (8.9)21.9 (9.6)
    Extraversion25.9 (8.0)26.1 (6.9)25.9 (7.6)
    Openness28.2 (6.6)28.6 (6.3)28.9 (6.3)
    Agreeableness34.4 (4.8)33.3 (5.6)33.3 (5.7)
    Conscientiousness31.3 (7.5)32.0 (6.4)31.9 (6.7)
Participants missing self-efficacy data, No. (%)
    2-week follow-up4 (3)13 (10)2 (2)
    4-week follow-up10 (8)10 (8)5 (4)
    6-week follow-up5 (4)6 (5)1 (1)
    6-month follow-up6 (5)6 (5)2 (2)
    1-year follow-up8 (6)9 (7)4 (3)