Table 3.

Results From Probit Regression Models Used to Examine the Mediation Effect of Health Literacy on Disparities in Selected Health Outcomes Related to Race/Ethnicity and Educational Attainment (Model A = Without Health Literacy, Model B = With Health Literacy)

Self-Rated Health Status β (SE)Influenza Vaccination β (SE)Mammogram β (SE)Dental Checkup β (SE)
MML=marginal maximum likelihood.
Note: Standard errors are in parentheses. Three decimal places were kept when reporting standard error estimates of age. The small estimates were due to a much larger unit of age compared with other independent variables. Model A has self-rated health status or utilization of each of the preventive health services as the dependent variable, race/ethnicity and educational attainment as the independent variable, and 4 demographic variables as covariates. Model B adds health literacy as an independent variable.
Source: Data used are from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.
a Statistically significant regression coefficients in each model at the α level of .05.
b In the MML probit model, health literacy was measured on the item response theory (IRT) 𝛉 scale, typically ranging from −3 to 3.
c Sex is not included in the probit model for mammogram.
    Black−0.34a (0.11)−0.24a (0.04)−0.24a (0.10)−0.18a (0.04)0.23 (0.15)0.28a (0.06)−0.13 (0.11)−0.04 (0.04)
    Latino/Hispanic0.02 (0.14)0.21a (0.07)−0.04 (0.16)0.08 (0.07)0.57a (0.19)0.70a (0.07)0.19 (0.14)0.35a (0.05)
    Other−0.11 (0.30)−0.09 (0.10)0.22 (0.19)0.24a (0.08)−0.01 (0.25)0.02 (0.09)−0.21 (0.32)−0.20 (0.12)
    >High schoolRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
    High school or equivalency−0.17 (0.11)−0.08 (0.05)−0.08 (0.10)−0.03 (0.04)−0.40a (0.14)−0.36a (0.06)−0.39a (0.10)−0.31a (0.04)
    <High school−0.56a (0.12)−0.36a (0.05)−0.31a (0.11)−0.18a (0.05)−0.60a (0.13)−0.46a (0.06)−0.97a (0.12)−0.80a (0.05)
Health literacyb0.23a (0.03)0.14a (0.02)0.17a (0.04)0.20a (0.03)
Age−0.02a (0.006)−0.01a (0.003)0.03a (0.006)0.03a (0.003)−0.01 (0.007)−0.006 (0.003)0.008 (0.005)0.02a (0.002)
    Female0.19a (0.08)0.15a (0.03)0.04 (0.08)0.01 (0.03)0.12 (0.08)0.07a (0.03)
    >175% of poverty levelRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
    100%–175% poverty level−0.39a (0.11)−0.32a (0.04)−0.07 (0.10)−0.03 (0.04)−0.23 (0.12)−0.18a (0.05)−0.55a (0.10)−0.49a (0.04)
    <Poverty level−0.62a (0.11)−0.50a (0.05)−0.23a (0.10)−0.16a (0.05)−0.14 (0.13)0.04 (0.05)−0.54a (0.13)−0.43a (0.06)
    US bornRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
    Foreign born−0.03 (0.17)0.10 (0.07)−0.24 (0.13)−0.16a (0.05)−0.12 (0.22)0.04 (0.10)0.18 (0.15)0.30a (0.06)
Constant2.34a (0.50)1.77a (0.22)−1.13a (0.45)−1.52a (0.19)1.77a (0.52)1.32a (0.25)0.22 (0.35)−0.33a (0.16)