Table 1

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion CriteriaExclusion Criteria
Set in primary care, general practice, or similar settings
Focused on the work of primary care physicians or their equivalent internationally
Presented empirical data or primary research
Described the impact or effect of the potential operational failures (related terms include disruptions, distractions, breaks-in-task, interruptions, situational constraints etc) on the primary care physician
Set in secondary or tertiary care or hospitals
Focused on secondary care or subspecialty physicians, or other health care professionals in primary care who are not physicians
Focused on the entire organizational system of primary care at a regional, state, or national level
Based in out-of-hours services, community hospitals, or specialty clinic care in the community
Lacking empirical data (ie, theoretical discussions, editorials etc)
Not published in English
Examined practice responses to new policy initiatives without examining if/how these initiatives were problematic for primary care physicians
Focused on adverse events, errors, quality and safety, quality improvement, or task-distribution without problematization of issues from the perspective of primary care physicians
Focused on the implementation of novel innovations/interventions as part of a program of research
Focused only on productivity without identifying or describing specific problems that interfere with efficiency