Table 3.

Estimated Implementation and Maintenance Costs of Performance Data Reporting in 8 Primary Care Practices, by Program and Practice

Implementation Costs $Maintenance (Annualized) Costs $
Program and PracticeTotalPer Clinician FTEIncurred by ProgramaTotalPer Clinician FTEIncurred by ProgramaMajor Cost Sources, $Estimated Incentive Payment (per FTE), $
AM = annualized maintenance cost; CEO = chief executive officer; EHR = electronic health record; IT = information technology; n/a = not available; QI = quality improvement; S=start-up cost.
a Includes only the estimated cost of program services delivered on-site in the primary care practice.
b No maintenance participation costs available either because of nature of program (no maintenance phase of reporting) or insufficient time in program.
c CCNC started in 1998; several practices did not have access to costs data from implementation.
d Participating practices received $2.50 per patient per month, primarily for case management; payment was not tied to data reporting.
Physician Quality Reporting Initiative (PQRI)
    A5,949425012,2008710S/AM: Data entry by clinicians and billing staff7,000 (500)
    B9203680207830None0; denied incentive due to operational issues
    D22,20011,10008,6574,3290S: Personnel time to collaborate with others (laboratory, Medicare, a patient revenue management company); internal meetings to plan and comply with the program4,000 (1,000)
S/AM: Technical support with server, and server upgrades
    H5,89447507,2005810S: Data entry time; leadership meetings2,000 (210)
AM: Data entry by clinicians and IT personnel costs for program monitoring
Improving Performance in Practice (IPIP)
    B3,5711,4282,5455,0442,018141S/AM: Maintaining the active list of patients; data entry2,000 (800)
    C2,6892,6891,0004,2294,229820S/AM: Data abstraction by clinician2,000 (2,000)
    F18,2103,0351,67311,5631,9271,673S/AM: Meetings; staff time to develop work- around for laboratory values (because of lack of information interoperability)2,000 (333)
Bridges to Excellence: Diabetes (DPRP)
    A8,65861802,940$205$0S: Internal audit to verify data accuracy (not required by QI organization).7,500 year 1 (536) 
 12,000 year 2 (857)
S/AS: Administrative meetings
    G4,27048845n/abn/abn/abS: Planning and decision making0; could not submit
S: Data entry and backup work
Bridges to Excellence: Physician Practice Connections (PPC)
    A11,294$807$0n/abn/ab$0S: Meetings of decision makers and/or stakeholders65,000, year 1 (4,642) 
 35,000, year 2 (2,500)
Community Care of North Carolina (CCNC)
    A1,8651331,2662,9542111,147S/AM: Regional meeting attendance0d
    B70928426814658197S: Initiation of new processes for some measures; meetings and work to credential clinicians0d
AS: Report review
    C563563261n/abn/abn/abS/AS: Regional meeting attendance; chart audits required staff participation due to EHR0d
    Dn/acn/acn/ac7193601,628S/AS: Internal meetings; audit preparation; audits required office staff participation because of EHR0d
    En/acn/acn/ac7611461,022AM: Network meetings, some report review by CEO0d
    Gn/acn/acn/ac2,7883195,477S/AM: High Medicaid volume resulted in case manager on site, who provided direct teaching of personnel; audits required office staff participation because of EHR0d