Table 1.

Social, Demographic, and Clinical Characteristics of Patients by Chronic Opioid Therapy (COT) Status for the Total Sample, Cervical Cancer Screening, and Colorectal Cancer Screening, Chronic Opioid Therapy (COT) Status for Lipid Screening and Smoking Counseling

Total Sample (N=704)Cervical Cancer Screening (n=321)Colorectal Cancer Screening (n=425)Lipid Screening (n=303)Smoking Counseling (n=298)
CharacteristicCOT (n=234)Non-COT (n=470)P ValueaCOT (n=110)Non-COT (n=211)P ValueaCOT (n=128)Non-COT (n=297)P ValueaCOT (n=109)Non-COT (n=194)P ValueaCOT (n=101)Non-COT (n=197)P Valuea
GERD = gastroesophageal reflux disease; PUD = peptic ulcer disease; PCP = primary care physician.
Note: Subgroups determined by the recommendation criteria for each preventive service: Papanicolaou testing, women aged 35 to 65 years; colorectal cancer screening, all patients aged 50 years or older; lipid screening, men aged 35 years or older and women aged 45 years or older; smoking cessation counseling, all smokers.
a P values are based on comparisons of COT and non-COT patients using the independent samples t test for mean values and the Pearson χ2 test for percentages.
b Because some patients had more than 1 type of insurance, totals are greater than 100%.
c Comorbidities listed are those for which a difference (P ≤.20) between COT and non-COT was seen in the total study sample or in at least 1 subgroup.
d Amount of time, in months, between first clinic visit and last clinic visit during the 3-year study period.
e Evidence in the medical record that the patient formally discontinued receiving care at the clinic, initiated by either the patient or the clinic.
f For each subgroup, this refers only to the particular preventive service pertaining to that subgroup, and indicates whether the service was received at least once during the 3-year study period.
Age, mean y54.957.7.01548.448.1.75264.767.0.04757.360.4.07650.451.8.347
Female, %
Ethnicity/race, %
    White, non-Hispanic69.760.0.01273.660.7.02171.162.0.07078.068.6.08072.368.5.505
    Not specified26.132.6.07821.827.5.26925.834.0.09417.425.8.09721.825.9.435
Insurance, %b
History of substance abuse, %
Smoker, %44.443.4.79350.055.5.35332.035.7.46749.544.8.432100.0100.0n/a
Number of comorbidities ≥2, %85.578.1.02080.971.1.05694.586.5.01682.673.2.06578.278.2.993
Select comorbidities, %c
    Congestive heart failure5.18.1.1500.03.3.0537.812.1.1908.311.9.3285.04.6.883
    Sleep disorder5.12.3.0506.42.8.1292.31.3.4595.51.0.0205.94.1.468
Same zip code as clinic, %
Active months, mean No.d30.529.3.20029.429.6.90631.030.2.51028.227.2.53129.129.1.994
Total visits, mean No.24.615.4<.00125.714.1<.00124.617.4<.00122.514.0<.00123.814.3<.001
Visits with PCP, mean %
Record of discontinuation, %e7.73.0.00511.03.3.0066.32.7.08110.13.1.01110.02.0.002
Preventive service received, %fn/an/an/a42.759.2.0057.813.8.08128.429.9.78961.456.9.452