Table 2.

Baseline Characteristics of Physicians Who Completed Both Surveys

CharacteristicUsual Care (n=20)Guided Care (n=18)ρa
a Significance of Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables, Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables.
Physician characteristics
Age, mean years (SD)45.8 (8.2)45.9 (9.8)0.976
Female, No. (%)5 (25)9 (50)0.179
Race, No. (%)0.840
    White12 (60)12 (67)
    Black4 (20)2 (11)
    Asian4 (20)3 (17)
    Other0 (0)1 (6)
Panel size, mean (SD), No.1,430 (440)1,584 (570)0.533
Panel aged ≥65 y, mean (SD), No.23 (12)23 (11)0.784
Practice characteristics
Insurance types accepted, No. (%)0.899
    Fee for service2 (10)2 (11)
    Mixed9 (45)7 (39)
    Health maintenance organization9 (45)9 (50)
Ownership, No. (%)1.000
    Not-for-profit18 (90)16 (89)
    For-profit2 (10)2 (11)
Location, No. (%)0.193
    Urban13 (65)7 (39)
    Suburban7 (35)11 (61)
Age of practice, mean (SD), y20.3 (7.4)18.8 (7.9)0.731
Annual patient visits, No. (%)0.963
    <40,0009 (45)7 (39)
    40,000–80,0002 (10)2 (11)
    80,000–120,0006 (30)5 (28)
    ≥120,0003 (15)4 (22)
Full-time equivalent personnel in practice, No. (%)1.000
    <303 (15)3 (17)
    30–409 (45)7 (39)
    40–506 (30)6 (33)
    ≥502 (10)2 (11)
Full-time physicians, mean (SD), No.9.8 (4.2)10.8 (3.9)0.507
Registered nurse-to-physician ratio, mean (SD)0.6 (0.2)0.5 (0.3)0.079
Nurse-to-physician ratio, mean (SD)0.8 (0.4)0.6 (0.4)0.090
Physician assistant-to-physician ratio, mean (SD)0.1 (0.1)0.1 (0.1)0.346
Administrative staff-to-physician ratio, mean (SD)1.5 (1.4)1.2 (1.2)0.792
Use of electronic medical record, No. (%)18 (90)16 (89)0.656
Use of patient registries, No. (%)11 (55)14 (78)0.128
Use of reminders for patients, No. (%)20 (100)18 (100)
Use of reminders for physicians, No. (%)18 (90)16 (89)1.000
Use of electronic communication among clinicians, No. (%)20 (100)18 (100)
Provision of readily available evidence-based guidelines, No. (%)18 (90)16 (89)1.000
Encouragement of continuing medical education, No. (%)11 (55)11 (61)0.752
Access to on-site social worker, No. (%)6 (30)4 (22)0.719
Access to a case manager, No. (%)18 (90)16 (89)1.000
Patient/caregiver support group, No. (%)7 (35)2 (11)0.130
Financial performance, No. (%)1.000
    Profit/margin15 (75)13 (72)
    Balanced2 (10)2 (11)
    Deficit3 (15)3 (17)
Proportion of capitated patients, No. (%)0.576
    <30%9 (45)9 (50)
    30%–45%5 (25)2 (11)
    100%6 (30)7 (39)
Use of practice productivity incentives, No. (%)11 (55)9 (50)1.000