Table 1.

Normalization Process Theory Constructs

Coherence (Sense-Making Work)aCognitive Participation (Relationship Work)bCollective Action (Enacting Work)cReflexive Monitoring (Appraisal Work)d
a Investing in making tasks meaningful.
b Investing personal and interpersonal commitment to tasks.
c Investing effort and resources in tasks.
d Investing in comprehending.
Differentiation: Defining, dividing up, and categorizing taskEnrollment: recruiting the self and others to tasksSkill set workability: allocating tasks and performancesReconfiguration: changing tasks
Communal specification: making sense of shared versions of tasksActivation: organizing a shared contribution to tasksContextual integration: supporting and resourcing tasks in their social contextsCommunal appraisal: shared evaluation of contributions and tasks
Individual specification: making sense of personal versions of tasksInitiation: organizing an individual contribution to tasksInteractional workability: doing tasks, and making outcomes, in practiceIndividual appraisal: individual evaluation of contributions and tasks
Internalization: learning how to do tasks in contextLegitimation: making tasks the right thing to doRelational integration: making and communicating reliable knowledge about tasksSystematization: organizing a reliable stock of knowledge about tasks