Table 2

Summary of Significant Associations Between Morbidity Measures and Patient-Reported Outcomes

Patient-Reported Outcomesa
Morbidity MeasureGeneral Health Status β (CI)bPhysical Well-being β (CI)bEmotional Well-being β (CI)bFewer Financial Constraints Odds Ratio (CI)cLess Overwhelmed Odds Ratio (CI)cSelf-efficacy Odds Ratio (CI)c
Quan adaptation of CCI (ICD-9)15 (range=0–12)−1.91 (−2.50 to −1.33)d−0.68 (−0.99 to −0.37d0.06 (−0.19 to 0.31)0.82 (0.73 to 0.91)d0.87 (0.78 to 0.96)e0.96 (0.86 to 1.08)
Self-reported disease burden26 (range=1–89)−0.71 (−0.84 to −0.59)d−0.49 (−0.56 to −0.42)d−0.11 (−0.16 to −.05)d0.96 (0.94 to 0.99)f0.95 (0.93 to 0.97)d0.96 (0.94 to 0.99)f
Anxiety symptoms (GAD-7)39 (range=0–21)−2.75 (−5.88 to 0.37)1.41 (−0.24 to 3.06)−5.90 (−7.25 to −4.56)d0.64 (0.37 to 1.09)0.57 (0.35 to 0.93)e0.79 (0.48 to 1.31)
Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9)38 (range=0–27)−12.01 (−14.75 to −9.27)d−4.99 (−6.44 to −3.54)d−5.87 (−7.05 to −4.69)d0.66 (0.39 to 1.13)0.30 (0.18 to 0.50)d0.18 (0.10 to 0.33)d
  • CCI = Charlson comorbidity index; GAD-7 = Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale; ICD- 9=International Classification of Disease, 9th edition; PHQ-9=9-item Patient Health Questionnaire.

  • Note: Associations expressed as point estimates with confidence intervals within separate models for each outcome.

  • a For all outcomes, higher outcome values represent a better state (eg, better physical functioning, fewer financial constraints). All models adjusted for morbidity measures above and age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and length of enrollment.

  • b Linear regression: β estimates; nonsignificant confidence intervals cross zero.

  • c Logistic regression: odds ratios; nonsignificant confidence intervals cross 1.0.

  • d P value <.001.

  • e P value <.05.

  • f P value <.01.