Utilization Outcomes^{a} | |||
---|---|---|---|
Morbidity Measure | Outpatient Utilization Negative Binomial Regression Rate Ratio (CI)^{b} | Inpatient Admission Logistic Regression Odds Ratio (CI)^{c} | Emergency Department Admission Logistic Regression Odds Ratio (CI)^{c} |
Quan adaptation of CCI (ICD-9)^{15} (range=0–12) | 1.05 (1.02–1.09)^{d} | 1.17 (1.08–1.26)^{d} | 1.12 (1.04–1.22)^{d} |
Self-reported disease burden^{26} (range=1–89) | 1.02 (1.01–1.02)^{e} | 1.03 (1.01–1.04)^{d} | 1.01 (0.99–1.03)^{f} |
Anxiety symptoms (GAD-7)^{39} (range=0–21) | 1.23 (1.03–1.47)^{f} | 1.01 (0.65–1.58) | 0.94 (0.62–1.43) |
Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9)^{38} (range=0–27) | 1.00 (0.86–1.16) | 0.81 (0.55–1.20) | 1.72 (1.19–2.49)^{d} |
CCI = Charlson comorbidity index; GAD-7 = Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale; ICD-9=International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition; PHQ-9=9-item Patient Health Questionnaire.
Note: Associations expressed as rate or odds ratios with confidence intervals within separate models for each outcome.
↵a All models adjusted for other morbidity measures and age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, follow-up time, and length of enrollment.
↵b Negative binomial regression; nonsignificant confidence intervals cross 1.0.
↵c Logistic regression; nonsignificant confidence intervals cross 1.0.
↵d P value <.01.
↵e P value <.001.
↵f P value <.05.