Table 2

Key Steps for Designing and Conducting Video Elicitation Interviews

StepExample From Authors’ Study
Conceptualizing a video elicitation study
1. Choose a research question for which the added value of video elicitation interviews justifies the time and resources requiredHow do physicians’ and patients’ prioritize discussions of preventive services in primary care?
2. Decide on the scope of data collectionInterviewed participants about the entire interaction; asked participants to make unsolicited comments and respond to questions about preventive services delivery
Participants and sampling
3. Determine the unit of analysis and sampling frameInterviewed both physicians and patients; used convenience and snowball sampling; recruited physicians before patients; recruited patients (2 per physician) from waiting rooms; paid patients
4. Establish sufficient trust to record physiciansRecruited physicians from investigator’s local department and community; presented study aims to clinic staff using an academic detailing approach; offered individualized feedback sessions to physicians and clinics
Data collection and management
5. Choose an appropriate video cameraUsed a professional-grade, portable video camera with a fixed lens; used an adapted medical equipment stand (tripods would not fit in examination rooms)
6. Establish a protocol for recording interactionsUsed checklists for equipment setup; frequently reviewed recordings to evaluate quality; obtained backup audio recordings; research assistant set up equipment on site and was not in room during the interaction; physicians covered lens during physical examination
7. Minimize the elapsed time between video recording and elicitation interviewsInterviewed patients immediately after the interaction in available clinic space; used a laptop computer to play videos; interviewed physicians 1 to 2 weeks later as their schedules allowed
8. Determine the elicitation interview structureConducted semistructured interviews; investigated both spontaneous comments and discussions about preventive services; interviewers and participants were encouraged to pause recordings and comment; variation among interactions made structured interviews difficult
9. Train interviewersInvestigator trained interviewers
10. Determine a protocol for storing video recordingsConverted digital cassettes to computer files and stored them on secure servers; archived video recordings for future use
11. Choose a transcription protocol for interviewsUsed a standard protocol designed for studying medical discourse47
Data analysis
12. Review interview and data quality regularlyDiscussed data and findings in regular debriefing meetings using transcripts; investigators participated in some interviews
13. Decide how to integrate data from video recordings and elicitation interviewsTried integrating transcripts from video recordings and interviews into a single document (which added considerable time and little additional insight); did not record exact times that participants’ paused videos
14. Choose a method for analyzing elicitation interview dataDeveloped a theory-driven coding system for assessing statements likely to represent tacit clues
Mitigating limitations of video elicitation interviews
15. Consider what kinds of interview data (recall, reliving, and/or reflection) are neededDid not address
16. Consider how social pressures related to interview setting may influence interview dataNoted that patients often emphasized features they liked about their physicians; were alert to participant responses during interviews that reflected social desirability