Table 1

Studies Included in the Metasummary, in Chronological Order, Showing Author, Year, Country, Qualitative Design, and Patient Population

Author Year, CountryQualitative DesignPatient Population and Setting
American Hospital Association and The Picker Institute29 1997, USAFocus groups (n = 31) and Picker Institute patient surveysAdult patients (public perceptions of health care and hospitals in 12 different states in the United States
Burkey et al30 1997, UKIn-depth semistructured interviews (n = 43); follow-up with 37 at 6 monthsPatients followed at 5 general medical outpatient clinics (3 or more attendances) and discharged in April–May 1995
Adewuyi-Dalton et al31 1998, UKSemistructured interviews about routine hospital follow-up (n=113)Women with breast cancer in remission discharged to usual care
Armitage et al32 1998, AustraliaTelephone semistructured interviews (n = 29) at home (5 to 36 days after discharge) about discharge planningPatients (inpatient >2 days) discharged from 3 medical wards of a large tertiary referral teaching hospital
Gallagher et al33 1999, Canada10 Individual semistructured interviewsSeniors from across Canada who use 2 or more health services, recruited in their community by Advisory Council members, themselves seniors
Wallace et al34 1999, UKFocus groups (n = 3)Women with epilepsy recruited from tertiary hospital’s Epilepsy Clinic and through the epilepsy support group
Wallace et al35 1999, CanadaFocus groups (n = 9) with patients and family members separately (n = 41)Psychiatry patients discharged from inpatient unit and still being treated in the outpatient department, and family members
McCourt et al36 2000, UKSemistructured narrative individual interviews (n=20)Visible minority women, one-half receiving caseload midwifery care and one-half conventional maternity care (ethnic categories: black Caribbean and African, South and East Asian, and Mediterranean or Middle Eastern)
Radwin et al37 2000, USAInterviews about quality nursing care with a semistructured schedule (n = 22)Oncology patients in outpatient treatment at an urban medical center (19 hospitalized for cancer treatment at least once)
Bakker et al38 2001, CanadaInterviews relatively unstructured in patient’ home (n=28)Patients receiving chemotherapy at 1 of the 13 community chemotherapy clinics after medical oncology consultation at regional cancer center
Kai et al5 2001, UKIndividual in-depth interviews (n=34)Patients with enduring mental ill health registered with 4 general practices referred to 2 consultant psychiatrist-led community mental health teams at a local hospital inpatient unit
Bain et al39 2002, ScotlandFocus groups (n = 4), 22 patients with colorectal cancer (and 10 of their relatives) and in-depth interviews conducted in the participants homes (n = 39 patients and 24 relatives)Oncology and surgical outpatient clinics for colorectal cancer and from chemotherapy outpatients and in-patients. North and Northeast of Scotland
Harrison et al40 2002, CanadaIn-depth personal interviews and short telephone interviews to understand coordination of carePatients (n = 26) discharged from an acute care hospital into the community with home care support, (n = 5 urban and 1 rural)
McKinney et al41 2002, UKPhenomenological approach (interpretative Heideggerian approach, n = 6)Patients (n = 6) who have been transferred from intensive care to general ward; before and after transfer from intensive care unit
Murray et al42 2002, UKIn-depth interviews every 3 months for 1 year with patients and their main caregiver plus professional identified as key by patients. Two multidisciplinary focus groups. Postbereavement interviews with caregivers and key professionalsPatients with inoperable lung cancer (n = 20) and patients with advanced cardiac failure (n = 20) receiving community terminal care, with caregivers and key professional carers
Osse et al43 2002, The NetherlandsIn-depth interviews with patients (n = 9) and relatives (n = 7) followed by interviews using a checklist (n = 31 and 15)Adults cancer patients with metastatic disease in a palliative phase of cancer. Patients were selected through randomly chosen general practitioners and through patient organizations
Kroll et al44 2003, USASemistructured telephone interviews (n = 30)People with cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, or spinal cord injury, with reported problems of health insurance coverage and accessibility; across all services
O’Connell et al45 2003, AustraliaFocus groups (n = 12), mixed groups about transition from pediatric to adult careYoung adults (aged 16–25 years) with a disability, their caregivers, and health care service clinicians
Tarrant et al46 2003, UKNarrative-based individual interviews, “framework” approach. Followed by focus groups with patients (n = 4) and with health professionals (n = 4)Adult patients (n = 40), practitioners (n = 13), practice and community nurses (n = 10), and practice administrative staff (n = 6) in 6 general practices in Leicestershire
Ware et al14 2003, USAEthnographic study using data collected through observation and open-ended interviewingSeverely mentally ill persons (n = 9) and their health professional, in public mental health services, Boston, Massachusetts
Arthur et al47 2004, UKSemistructured interviews (n = 10)Rheumatology outpatients using antirheumatic drugs
Dolovich et al9 2004, CanadaFocus groups with patients (n = 7) and health care clinicians (n = 2), approximately one-half being physiciansPatients with a diabetes diagnosis registered in a multidisciplinary health service organization in Ontario
Infante et al4 2004, AustraliaFocus groups (n = 12)Health consumers with chronic illnesses, followed in general practice
Miles et al48 2004, UKSingle semistructured interviews (n = 7) about transitionAdolescent patients human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection transferred from hospital pediatric unit to the adult HIV outpatient center
Williams et al49 2004, AustraliaColaizzi’s phenomenological method using single semistructured interviews (n = 12)Patients with multiple chronic illnesses for approximately 5 years, admitted to acute care hospital from home, during hospital care of at least 4 days’ duration
Woodward et al50 2004, CanadaInterviews home care case managers (n = 13), home service clinicians (n = 19), clients (n = 25), and their caregivers (n = 5) and 3 physiciansHome care cases with different entry mechanisms to home care (from hospital or from the community) and different availability of family caregivers
Pâquet et al51 2005, CanadaFocus groups (n = 3) from rural, semirural and urban milieu, about cardiac rehabilitation programsAdults hospitalized for a cardiovascular event: myocardial infarction, angina, or percutaneous angioplasty
Alazri et al6 2006, UKFocus groups (n = 12) about primary diabetes carePatients with type 2 diabetes from 2 rural and 5 urban practices in Leeds of different sizes
Fraenkel et al52 2006, UK and USAFocus groups (n = 8, 4 per setting)Patients with hepatitis C attending the outpatient liver clinics in 2 different settings
McCurdy et al53 2006, CanadaQualitative case study approach, 4 focus groups with young adults about pediatric to adult care transitionPatients aged 19–24 years, after transfer at 18 years from pediatric to adult center after kidney, liver, or heart transplant
Naithani et al54 2006, UKIn-depth semistructured interviews in patient’ homeType 2 diabetic patients from general practices in 2 inner London boroughs with young, mobile, and ethnically diverse populations and high level of deprivation
Hildingsson et al3 2007, SwedenWritten response to 1 open-ended question about maternity servicesWomen seen in a Swedish prenatal clinic
Lester et al55 2007, UKFocus groups (n = 18) (separate with patients, physicians, practice nurses)Patients with broadly defined serious mental illness in 6 primary care trusts, West Midlands
Burns et al13 2007, UKIn-depth interviews with 20 psychotic patients and 11 nonpsychotic patientsPatients with mental illness (and their caregivers) in 2 London mental health National Health Service accessing a variety of health and social services