Table 2

Hazard Ratios for Major Depression for Time to an Hypoglycemic Event or for Relative Risk for Number of Hypoglycemic Events (N=4,117)

Covariate AdjustmentTime to Hypoglycemic Event HR (95% CI)Number of Hypoglycemic Events RR (95% CI)
Unadjusted1.89 (1.39–2.56)1.91 (1.49–2.43)
 Prior hypogycemic eventa1.65 (1.21–2.25)1.69 (1.32–2.17)
 Prior hypogycemic eventa and demographic characteristicsb1.78 (1.30–2.44)1.76 (1.37–2.26)
 Prior hypogycemic eventa and demographicb and clinicalc characteristics1.41 (1.03–1.94)1.39 (1.08–1.80)
 Prior hypogycemic eventa and demographic,b clinical,c and health risk behaviord characteristics1.42 (1.03–1.96)1.34 (1.03–1.74)
  • HR=hazard ratio; RR=relative risk.

  • a At least 1 hypoglycemic event in the 5 years before entering study.

  • b Demographic characteristics: age, sex, race (white vs nonwhite race/ethnicity), education (some college, high school, or less), and marital status (married or partnered, single).

  • c Clinical characteristics: diabetes duration, insulin use, RxRisk score, hypertension diagnosis, diabetes type 1 or 2, and diabetes complication score.

  • d Health risk behavior characteristics: body mass index, current smoking, and physical activity.