Table 1

Characteristics of Practices and Responding Physicians

Recognition Level
CharacteristicOverall (N=249)Level 1 (n=91)Level 3a (n=158)
Solo physician practice, %34.940.731.7
Physicians/NPs/PAs, mean (SD), No.2.9 (1.6)2.7 (1.6)3.0 (1.5)
Total staff (excluding physicians/NPs/PAs), mean (SD), No.8.2 (5.0)7.6 (4.8)8.5 (5.1)
Practice type, %
 Federally designated health center or community health center14.914.315.2
 Physician owned, independent20.928.516.5
 Physician owned, affiliated with larger group27.723.130.4
 Hospital/health system owned36.534.138.0
Region, %
 New England (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT)24.128.621.5
 Northeast (NY, NJ)13.717.611.4
 Mid-Atlantic (DC, MD, PA, VA, WV)10.415.47.6
 Southeast (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN)
 Midwest (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI)18.115.419.6
 Southwest (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX)
 Plains (IA, KS, MO, NE)
 Mountain (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY)
 West (AZ, CA, HI, NV)
 Northwest (AK, ID, OR, WA)
Fully electronic health record, %b79.667.586.2
Female, %35.033.336.0
Race/ethnicity, %c
 White, non-Hispanic78.680.277.7
 Black, non-Hispanic6.010.53.4
 Asian, non-Hispanic9.88.110.8
Time in this practice, mean (SD), y13.9 (9.0)14.8 (9.9)13.3 (8.5)
Time since graduation from medical school, mean (SD), yc23.4 (9.6)25.5 (9.7)22.2 (9.4)
  • NP=nurse practitioner; PA=physician assistant.

  • Note: Pearson χ2 test for categorical variables and independent samples t tests for continuous variables.

  • a Includes practices that entered the study at Level 3 and practices that advanced from Level 1 to Level 3 during the study.

  • b P <.01, difference by level.

  • c P <.05, difference by level.