Phase | Milk Consumption Phases | P Value^{a} | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Raw (R) | Pasteurized (P) | Soy (S) | R vs P | R vs S | P vs S | |
AUC ∆H_{2}^{b} | ||||||
Day 1 | 113 ± 21 | 71 ± 12 | 5 ± 2 | 0.01 | <.001 | <.001 |
Day 8 | 72 ± 14^{c} | 74 ± 15 | 5 ± 2 | 0.9 | <.001 | <.001 |
Peak ∆H_{2} | ||||||
Day 1 | 117 ± 20 | 75 ± 11 | 11 ± 4 | 0.01 | <.001 | <.001 |
Day 8 | 79 ± 14^{d} | 80 ± 13 | 12 ± 3 | 0.9 | <.001 | <.001 |
ANOVA = analysis of variance; AUC ∆H2 = area under the H2 curve above baseline; Peak ∆H2 = highest H2 concentration after milk ingestion, minus baseline concentration (ppm); H_{2} = hydrogen; HBT = hydrogen breath test.
Notes: End-alveolar air samples collected before and at 12 consecutive 20-minute intervals after ingestion of 473 mL (16 oz) of milk. All data for 2 participants who did not undergo the day-8 HBT during one of the milk phases were omitted from the day-8 analysis (n = 14). In the analysis comparing days 1 and 8, all data were omitted for 1 participant in the R phase and 1 participant in the P phase analyses who did not complete the day-8 HBT in each respective phase (n = 15).
↵a Group differences were tested by repeated-measures ANOVA, showing significant differences among the 3 milks in all instances (P <.001). Pairwise differences were subsequently calculated using matched pairs t tests.
↵b AUC ∆H2 calculated by the linear trapezoidal method (ppm · min · 10^{−2}).
↵c Matched pair t test for day 1 vs day 8 for raw milk (n = 15): P = .05.
↵d Matched pair t test for day 1 vs day 8 for raw milk (n = 15): P = .06.