Table 2

Questions to Apply the 5 R’s at Each Stage of the Research and Dissemination Process

Stage of ResearchBold Standard 5 R’s
Relevant to StakeholdersRapid and RecursiveRedefines RigorReports on ResourcesReplicability
DesignEnd users of this research identified?
Stakeholders who need to be involved identified?
Plan in place to engage their perspectives?
Plan in place to gather stakeholder questions and what is important to them?
Rapid cycle measurement and assessment built into the design? How?
Approach in place to allow early discoveries to shape the study?
How is study systematic and pragmatic about concepts, measures, data collection procedures, and analysis plan?
Multiple methods used? How?
Internal and external validity balanced? How?
Intervention costs (monetary and other) measured? How?
A standard vocabulary for reporting on resources in place? What?
Study designed to inform implementation and reinvention in different settings? How?
Likely relevant settings for this research identified?
ImplementationStakeholders involved in ongoing refinement? How?
Changes they suggested along the way recorded?
Changes suggested implemented? Which ones?
Short-cycle learning taking place to refine design and measurement?
Is learning influencing the study? How?
Systematic approach being followed to concepts, tools, data collection, measures, procedures, analyses?
Checks for bias and superfluous connections in place?
Clear description of what is being done recorded?
Cost data gathered on an ongoing basis?
Using a consistent vocabulary for different kinds of costs?
Contextual factors documented that are important to understanding what happened (and why) in the study setting?
ReportingDiverse stakeholders involved in interpreting and reporting findings?
Their different interpretations reported?
Emergent findings shared on an ongoing basis throughout the study?
Have adaptations made been reported?
Study methods reported transparently and thoroughly?
Reported how study checked for potential biases and superfluous connections?
Reported how conclusions are justified by standards of evidence?
Study reports useful cost data using a defined vocabulary for different kinds of costs?
Estimates made for costs under different conditions?
Contextual factors relevant to reinvention in new settings reported, including variation across settings or within settings?
DisseminationTarget audiences, stakeholders, or likely users involved in next steps?
Findings expressed in language and context that mean something to different stakeholders?
Guidelines provided for adaptation and customization/tailoring for future use?Description included for how internal and external validity findings support wider use?Intervention cost data discussed as a factor in dissemination?Data-supported suggestions included about the contexts for which program or intervention is relevant or reproducible?