Table 1

Operationalization of Measures in the Analysis

Variables from validated patient questionnaires
 Relational continuity2.17/10Range: 0–10Cut-points selected to populate each category adequately and be the same for all survey measures to simplify interpretation
 Interpersonal communication2.67/10 Low: 0–6.9
 Coordination within the clinic1.71/10 Medium: 7–8.9
 Coordination with specialists2.5/10 High: >8.9
 Overall coordination3.9/10
 Combined continuity z score−4.05/1.55Low: z < −0.5
Medium: z = −0.5 to 0.49
High: z= 0.5+
Known provider continuity (KPC) measures
 Personal provider (PP) continuity0/100Low: 0–29Adapted from Menec et al,31 McCusker et al,32 and Ionescu-Ittu et al33 to populate adequately each category across all continuity measures
 Multiple provider (MP) continuity0/100Medium: 30–74
High: >74
Control variables
 Morbidity: Resource Utilization BandLow: 1
High: 5
 Age, y20–59
 Education levelPrimary, secondary
University graduate