Table 1

Characteristics of Included Studies

First Author Risk of BiasNo.aRecruitmentDepression Diagnosis% Female Mean Age, yGroup 1 (No. of Sessions; Clinician)Group 2 (No. of Sessions; Clinician)Further GroupsWeek Posttreatment Measurement Score and InstrumentResponse Remission
Face-to-face CBT
Laidlaw 200844ReferralMajor depression72CBTUsual care18HRSD (i)
 u (luuul)74(8; psychologist)BDIHRSD (i)
Scott 199748ReferralMajor depression67Brief CTUsual care7HRSD (i)
 h (uuuhh)41(6; therapist)BDIHRSD (i)
Serfaty 2009137Mainly screeningDepression79CBTUsual careTalking controlb16BDI (i)
 l (llhul)74(≤12; therapist)BDIBDI (i)
Smit 2006116ReferralMajor depression64CBTUsual careRecurrence preventionb12BDI (i)
 l (llhll)43(10–12; therapist)BDIBDI (i)
Teasdale 198444ScreeningMajor depression94CTUsual careca 16HRSD
 h (uuhhl)38(≤20; psychologist)BDI (i)BDI
Face-to-face problem-solving therapy
Barrett 2001161ReferralDysthymia, minor depression64Problem solvingPlaceboParoxetineb11nr
 u (luuuu)44(6; psychologist)HSCL-D (c, i)HRSD ≤6
Mynor-Wallis 199560ReferralMajor depression77Problem solvingPlaceboAmitriptyline12HRSD (i)
 h (uuuhl)37(6; trained physician)BDIHRSD (i)
Oxman 2008141ScreeningMinor depression58Problem solvingUsual care9MADRS (i)
 u (llhuu)55(6; counselor)MADRSMADRS (i)
Williams 2000278Referral or screeningDysthymia or minor depression41Problem solvingPlaceboParoxetineb11HSCL-D (i)
 h (llhlh)71(6; psychologist/counselor)HSCL-D (c)HAD-D
Face-to-face interpersonal psychotherapy
Schulberg 1996185ScreeningMajor depression83Interpersonal PTUsual careNortriptylineb26HRSD (i)
 h (uuuhh)38(16; psychologist/psychiatrist)HRSD (i)HRSD (i)
Van Schaik 2006143ScreeningMajor depression69Interpersonal PTUsual care26MADRS
 u (ulhul)68(10; psychologist/nurse)MADRSMADRS
Other face-to-face psychosocial therapies
Casanas 2012231ReferralMajor depression89PsychoeducationUsual care12BDI (i)
 l (llhul)53(12; nursec)BDIBDI (i)
Corney 198487ReferralDepression100Social workUsual careUnclearImprovement
 h (huhuh)30(Unclear; social worker)nrnr
Corney 2005181ScreeningDepression80CounselingUsual care26BDI (i)
 l (luhll)(≥6 mo)43(6–12; counselorc)BDIBDI (i)
MacPherson 2013453ReferralDepression73CounselingUsual careAcupunctureb12PHQ-9 (i)
 l (llhul)44(12; counselors)PHQ-9PHQ-9 (i)
Three-armed trials with face-to-face CBT and other face-to-face psychosocial therapies
Scott 1992121ReferralMajor depression76CBTCounselingHRSD (i)
 u (uuuul)32(10; psychologist)(13; social worker)Usual care16HRSD
Ward 2000197ReferralDepression77CBTCounselingAmitriptylinebHRSDBDI (i)
 l (ulhll)37(6–12; psychologist)(6–12; counselorc)Usual care16BDI (i)
Remote therapist-led CBT
Dwight-Johnson 2011101ScreeningDepression78Telephone CBTUsual care12HSCL-D
 l (llhul)40(8; trained therapist)HSCL-Dnr
Kessler 2009297ReferralMajor depression68Online CBTUsual care16BDI (i)
 h (llhhl)35(≤10; psychologist)BDIBDI (i)
Simon 2004393ReferralDepression76Telephone CBTUsual care26HSCL-D
 u (llhuu)44(8; psychotherapist)HSCL-DHSCL-D
Remote therapist-led problem-solving therapy
Lynch 199729ScreeningMinor depression86Telephone problem solvingUsual care,6nr
 h (uuhhu)48(6; trained student)no treatmentBDI (i)BDI (i)
Lynch 200454ScreeningMild depression83Telephone problem solvingUsual care6nr
 h (uuhhh)38(6; nurse)BDIBDI (i)
Guided self-help CBT
Joling 2011170ScreeningSubthreshold depression54BibliotherapyUsual care12CES-D reduction ≥5
 u (luhul)81(3; nurse)CES-DCES-D ≤16
Proudfoot 2004274Referral or screeningDepression74Computerized CBTUsual care9BDI (i)
 u (ulhuu)44(≤80 min; nursec)BDIBDI (i)
Watkins 201282ScreeningDepression55Guided self-help concreteness trainingUsual care8HRSD (i)
 l (llull)46(≤4; psychologist)Relaxation controlbBDIHRSD (i)
Williams 2013281ReferralDepression68Guided self-help CBTUsual care16BDI
 u (ulhul)42(3; psychologist)BDIBDI (i)
No/minimal contact CBT
de Graaf 2009303ScreeningDepression57Computerized CBTdUsual care
 l (llhll)458BDI reliable change
Levesque 2011350ScreeningDepression67Computer behavioral intervention (TTM)Usual care, no interventionBDIBDI (i)
 h (luhhl)4739BDI ≤9+ significant change
Levin 2011191ReferralDepression77Computer CBTUsual careBDI
 l (luhll)44BDI (i)
Naylor 201038ScreeningDepression84BibliotherapyUsual care6SCID symptoms (i)
 h (luhhl)51CES-Dnr
6BDI-FS (i)
  • BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-FS = Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen; c = only change from baseline data available; ca = circa; CBT = cognitive behavioral therapy; CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; CT = cognitive therapy; HAD-D = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscale depression; HRSD = Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; HSCL-D = Hopkins Symptom Checklist Depression Scale; i = imputed data; MADRS = Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale; nr = not measured or reported; PHQ-9 = Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression; PT = psychotherapy; RDC = Research Diagnostic Criteria; SCID = Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders; TTM = transtheoretical model.

    Note: Risk of bias: l = low, u = unclear, h = high. First letter indicates the overall risk of blinding, not taking blinding into account; letters in parentheses sequentially indicate the risk of bias for the following 5 items: sequence generation, concealment, blinding, attrition, and selective reporting, respectively.

  • a Number of patients randomized (only in groups included in analyses).

  • b Comparator or control group not included in analyses.

  • c Trial included 2 separate groups (computerized CBT alone and in combination with usual care), which were pooled.

  • d Person providing the treatment was explicitly or probably a routine member of the primary care team.