Table 1

Logistic Regression Models for Hospital Admissions in the Past 12 Months Among Patients Aged ≥20 Years

CovariateScotland (n = 26,895) China (n = 124,829) Hong Kong (n = 23,839)
cOR (95% CI)aaORb (95% CI)acOR (95% CI)aaORb (95% CI)acOR (95% CI)aaORb (95% CI)a
Sex, male0.70 (0.65–0.76)0.75 (0.69–0.81)0.80 (0.79–0.81)0.75 (0.73–0.76)0.81 (0.74–0.89)0.79 (0.70–0.89)
Age, per 5 years1.06 (1.05–1.07)1.02c (1.00–1.04)1.16 (1.16–1.17)1.01d (1.00–1.01)1.19 (1.17–1.21)1.06 (1.04–1.08)
Household income per heade
 Grade 41.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)f
 Grade 31.32 (1.14–1.53)1.23 (1.06–1.43)0.85 (0.83–0.87)0.74 (0.72–0.76)0.81 (0.69–0.95)0.83 (0.71–0.97)
 Grade 21.90 (1.67–2.15)1.56 (1.37–1.77)0.80 (0.79–0.82)0.67 (0.66–0.69)1.23 (1.06–1.44)0.90 (0.77–1.06)
 Grade 12.28 (2.01–2.59)1.62 (1.41–1.86)0.68 (0.67–0.70)0.58 (0.56–0.60)1.91 (1.65–2.21)0.89 (0.75–1.06)
Education level
 No qualifications1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Other0.65 (0.60–0.71)0.94g (0.86–1.04)0.68 (0.67–0.69)1.47 (1.43–1.52)0.39 (0.34–0.44)0.83h (0.72–0.96)
Employment status
 Unemployed1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Other0.50 (0.46–0.55)0.69 (0.62–0.77)0.58 (0.57–0.60)0.70 (0.68–0.72)0.77 (0.69–0.87)0.83i (0.73–0.94)
Tobacco, smoker1.23 (1.14–1.34)1.16 (1.06–1.27)2.20 (2.16–2.24)1.26 (1.25–1.27)1.33 (1.19–1.50)1.37 (1.20–1.57)
Numbers of chronic conditions in ICD-10 coding categories
01.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 11.80 (1.62–2.01)1.77 (1.59–1.98)4.82 (4.60–5.06)4.89 (4.63–5.15)3.09 (2.74–3.48)2.63 (2.31–2.98)
 22.56 (2.28–2.88)2.41 (2.12–2.72)5.58 (5.31–5.87)5.53 (5.25–5.82)4.80 (4.17–5.53)3.69 (3.16–4.31)
 33.96 (3.48–4.51)3.53 (3.06–4.07)8.45 (8.19–8.71)8.18 (7.89–8.47)6.91 (5.73–8.32)4.96 (4.05–6.08)
 ≥45.19 (4.40–6.12)4.33 (3.63–5.17)21.04 (20.05–22.08)20.36 (19.34–21.43)9.78 (7.68–12.46)7.02 (5.43–9.06)

Notes: Dependent variable was admission to a hospital (secondary level or above) with at least 1 overnight stay in the 12 months before the survey.

  • aOR = adjusted odds ratio; cOR = crude odds ratio; ICD-10 = International Classification of Diseases,10th Edition; Ref = reference group.

  • a P values are based on joint tests, which test the overall differences between the individual categories of the corresponding variable. All are <.001 unless otherwise noted.

  • b Adjusted for all other covariates (independent variables) listed in the table.

  • c P = .02.

  • d P = .005.

  • e Grade 1 refers to as having less than one-half of the average income level; grade 2 refers to having more than that but less than the average level; grade 3 refers to having an income between the average and twice the average; grade 4 refers to having more than twice the average income level.

  • f P = .16.

  • g P = .24.

  • h P = .01.

  • i P = .004.