Table 1

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients

CharacteristicsSleep Apnea (n = 8,704)Controls (n = 34,792)P Value
Mean age, y (SD)47.9 (15.1)47.9 (15.1).963
Male, No. (%)5,490 (63.07)21,943 (63.07).993
Monthly income, No. (%)>.999
 Dependent1,539 (17.68)6,156 (17.69)
 NT$0-NT$19,100a2,001 (22.99)8,002 (23.00)
 NT$19,100-NT$42,000a3,713 (42.66)14,852 (42.69)
 >NT$42,000a1,451 (16.67)5,782 (16.62)
Urbanization, No. (%)1.000
 Level 1 (highest)5,188 (59.60)20,750 (59.64)
 Level 22,901 (33.33)11,598 (33.33)
 Level 3503 (5.78)2,003 (5.76)
 Level 4 (lowest)112 (1.29)441 (1.27)
Charlson comorbidity score, No. (%)<.001
 01,982 (22.77)14,216 (40.86)
 12,074 (23.83)8,323 (23.92)
 21,561 (17.93)4,919 (14.14)
 31,108 (12.73)2,822 (8.11)
 ≥41,979 (22.74)4,512 (12.97)
Outpatient visits in the past 1 year, No. (%)<.001
 0–5122 (1.40)2,854 (8.21)
 6–101,110 (12.75)8,608 (24.74)
 11–151,342 (15.42)6,946 (19.96)
 >156,130 (70.43)16,384 (47.09)
Comorbid disease, No. (%)
 Hypertension3,429 (39.40)9,204 (26.45)<.001
 Coronary artery disease2,198 (25.25)4,992 (14.35)<.001
 Cerebrovascular disease1,254 (14.41)2,964 (8.52)<.001
 Asthma1,604 (18.43)3,721 (10.69)<.001
 COPD2,392 (27.48)5,695 (16.37)<.001
 Chronic kidney disease902 (10.36)2,227 (6.40)<.001
 Dyslipidemia2,923 (33.58)7,271 (20.90)<.001
 Paralysis130 (1.49)353 (1.01)<.001
 Irritable bowel syndrome1,476 (16.96)3,405 (9.79)<.001
 Mitral valve prolapse505 (5.80)1,072 (3.08)<.001
 Premenstrual syndrome57 (0.65)132 (0.38)<.001
 Hyperthyroidism464 (5.33)1,081 (3.11)<.001
 Diabetes mellitus1,831 (21.04)5,290 (15.20)<.001
 Drug abuse332 (3.81)742 (2.13)<.001
 Cancer819 (9.41)2,064 (5.93)<.001
 Bipolar disorder31 (0.36)60 (0.17).001
 Obsessive-compulsive disorder44 (0.51)57 0.16)<.001
 Depression384 (4.41)590 (1.70)<.001
 Phobia23 (0.26)37 (0.11)<.001
 PTSD9 (0.10)7 (0.02)<.001
  • a NT$1 = US$0.033.

  • COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder.