Table 1

Association Between Practice Participation in ACOs, Risk for Primary Care Costs, and Primary Care Physician Compensation (N = 628)

Independent VariablePercentage Point Change in Physician Compensation for Salary (95% CI)Percentage Point Change in Physician Compensation for Quality (95% CI)
Does not participate in a CMS ACO program (reference)
Participates in a CMS ACO program−3.5 (−12.0 to 4.9)2.2 (1.4 to 2.9)a
Does not take substantial risk for primary care costs (reference)b
Takes substantial risk for primary care costsb35.5 (8.5 to 62.5)c−1.0 (−3.6 to 1.5)
Number of physicians in practice−0.02 (−0.09 to 0.04)−0.001 (−0.008 to 0.006)
Only primary care physicians (reference)
Multispecialty practice−8.3 (−27.1 to 10.6)−0.1 (−3.9 to 3.7)
Practice owned by hospital or health system (reference)
Practice owned by physicians−8.3 (−15.4 to −1.1)c−8.0 (−11.5 to −4.6)a
Practice owned by other groupd−13.0 (−59.7 to 33.8)−6.9 (−13.4 to −0.4)c
Percentage of patients whose primary language is not English0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)a−0.04 (−0.09 to 0.01)
  • ACO = accountable care organization; CMS = Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; HMO = health maintenance organization.

  • Note: Estimates are from linear regression models, incorporating the survey design.

  • a P <.01

  • b Defined by whether practices have some financial risk for all of their point-of-service patients.

  • c P <.05

  • d HMO or insurance entity, nonphysician managers, other.