Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of Study Patients, Overall and by PHQ-9 Screening Status Over the 12-Month Follow-up

CharacteristicTotal (N = 2,929)PHQ-9 Screening Status Over 12 Months P Value
Negative (n = 2,782)Positive (n = 147)
Patient factors
Sex, %.058
Age, mean (SD), y49.3 (7.0)49.2 (16.9)51.7 (18.2).08
Ethnicity, %.68
Marital status, %.03
 All others (single, separated, divorced, widowed)34.634.142.9
Household monthly income, %.003
 Moderate or higher income (>HK$30,000)41.542.229.1
 Lower income (≤HK$30,000)58.557.870.9
Education level, %.01
 Secondary or tertiary education76.677.168.0
 No formal or primary education23.422.932.0
Employment status, %.33
Smoking status, %.08
Drinking status, %.94
Exercise status, %.61
 No exercise26.326.424.5
Number of comorbidities, %<.001
Family history of mental illness, %.03
Number of visits to a western physician in past 4 weeks, %.02
Number of visits to a traditional Chinese medicine practitioner in past 4 weeks, %.80
District of residence, %.61
 Hong Kong43.343.146.6
 New Territories33.033.229.5
Physician factors
Sex, %.64
Age, mean (SD), y44.8 (11.8)
District of practice, %.44
 Hong Kong47.947.751.7
 New Territories21.822.017.7
Related training, %.07
 Vocational training in family medicine only48.848.455.8
 Diploma in psychological medicine only18.318.416.3
Practice setting, %.004
  • PHQ-9 = 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire.