Table 1

Modified Flanders Assessment Tool

1. Doctor responds to feelings
2. Doctor praises or encourages
3. Doctor uses patient’s ideas
4a. Doctor asks open-ended question
4b. Doctor asks closed-ended question
5. Doctor gives information
6. Doctor gives instructions
7. Doctor criticizes or justifies his or her authority
8. Patient responds to doctor
9. Patient initiates (question or information)
10. Silence or confusion
  • Note: For this study, categories 1 through 7 were combined to determine total physician talk time, and categories 8 and 9 were combined for patient talk time. More detailed analyses of the categories were not used.