Table 3

Prevalence of Symptoms, Blood Marker Positivity, and FCal Positivity by Final Diagnosis

DiagnosisNo. (%)Symptom Positive,a No.Blood Marker Positive,b No.FCal >50 μg/g, No.Range of FCal, μg/g
Primary care cohort
Functional gastrointestinal disorder108 (95)2491220–257
Gastroenteritisc5 (45)00120–88
Declined endoscopy1 (1)10
Referred cohort
 Crohn disease7 (8)776152–2,823
 Ulcerative colitis8 (9)74853–916
 IBD unclassified2 (2)21279–778
 Functional gastrointestinal disorder66 (73)40121020–185
 Gastroenteritisc3 (3)10020–45
 Reflux esophagitis1 (1)00022
 Celiac disease1 (1)10020
 Solitary rectal ulcer1 (1)101299
  • FCal = fecal calprotectin; IBD = inflammatory bowel disease.

  • a Presence of 1 or more of the following: growth failure, involuntary weight loss, rectal blood loss, extraintestinal symptoms, perianal lesions, family history of IBD.

  • b Hemoglobin (4–12 years old <7.1 mmol/L; 12–18 years old: boys <8.1 mmol/L, girls <7.4 mmol/L), C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (>20 mm/h), platelet count(>450 × 109/L).

  • c Due to Salmonella enterica (0 cases included by primary care physician; 2 cases included by pediatrician), Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (1 and 0), and Giardia lamblia (4 and 1).

  • Note: One child declined endoscopy and evaluation of red flags at 12 months’ follow-up, so the diagnosis was unknown. Nine children without IBD, including 1 child with a solitary rectal ulcer, underwent upper and lower endoscopy, including ileal intubation. The remaining 3 children did not undergo complete endoscopic evaluation for various reasons: the colonoscopy was prematurely terminated because of mucosal bleeding in 1 child with a functional gastrointestinal disorder, but was not repeated because symptoms subsided; 1 child with a functional gastrointestinal disorder underwent colonoscopy only, but not esophagogastroduodenoscopy; and 1 child received a diagnosis of celiac disease by esophagogastroduodenoscopy only.