Table 2

Odds Ratios for Poor Primary Care Coordination and Individual Care Coordination Gapsa

CharacteristicPoor Primary Care Coordination, Odds Ratio (95% CI)bCare Coordination Gap, Odds Ratio (95% CI)c
Test/Records Not AvailableConflicting InformationUnnecessary Test OrderedSpecialist Not InformedPCP Not Informed
Country
 Australia0.5 (0.4–0.7)d0.5 (0.4–0.6)d0.9 (0.7–1.1)0.6 (0.5–0.7)d0.6 (0.5–0.8)d0.6 (0.5–0.8)d
 Canada0.5 (0.4–0.6)d0.6 (0.5–0.8)d0.7 (0.6–0.9)d0.4 (0.3–0.5)d0.8 (0.6–1.0)0.9 (0.7–1.1)
 France0.6 (0.4–0.8)d0.6 (0.4–0.7)d0.7 (0.5–0.8)d0.8 (0.6–1.0)0.9 (0.7–1.2)1.2 (1.0–1.5)
 Germany0.5 (0.4–0.8)d0.4 (0.3–0.5)d0.9 (0.7–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.3)1.0 (0.8–1.4)2.6 (2.0–3.3)d
 Netherlands0.3 (0.2–0.5)d0.8 (0.6–1.1)1.6 (1.2–2.0)d1.3 (1.0–1.7)0.4 (0.2–0.5)d0.3 (0.2–0.4)d
 New Zealand0.5 (0.3–0.8)d0.5 (0.4–0.7)d1.0 (0.8–1.3)0.5 (0.3–0.6)d0.6 (0.4–0.8)d0.7 (0.5–1.0)
 Norway0.5 (0.3–0.7)d0.3 (0.3–0.5)d0.9 (0.7–1.2)0.5 (0.4–0.7)d0.7 (0.5–1.0)1.3 (1.0–1.6)
 Sweden0.5 (0.3–0.6)d0.6 (0.5–0.7)d0.8 (0.6–1.0)0.2 (0.2–0.3)d0.8 (0.7–1.1)1.3 (1.0–1.6)
 Switzerland0.8 (0.6–1.1)0.6 (0.5–0.8)d0.8 (0.6–1.0)1.7 (1.3–2.1)d1.3 (1.0–1.7)0.9 (0.7–1.1)
 United Kingdom0.3 (0.2–0.5)d0.5 (0.4–0.7)d0.4 (0.3–0.5)d0.5 (0.3–0.7)d0.6 (0.4–1.0)0.5 (0.3–0.7)d
 United StatesReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Age-group, y
 18–241.9 (1.4–2.7)d1.9 (1.5–2.4)d3.1 (2.5–3.8)d2.4 (1.8–3.0)d1.1 (0.8–1.4)1.3 (1.0–1.5)
 25–342.3 (1.7–3.0)d2.2 (1.8–2.8)d3.0 (2.4–3.6)d2.0 (1.6–2.5)d1.3 (1.0–1.6)1.2 (1.0–1.5)
 35–492.2 (1.7–2.7)d2.3 (1.9–2.8)d2.6 (2.2–3.1)d1.9 (1.6–2.3)d1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.2 (1.1–1.5)d
 50–641.6 (1.2–2.0)d1.9 (1.6–2.3)d1.8 (1.6–2.1)d1.5 (1.3–1.8)d1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.0 (0.9–1.2)
 ≥65ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Regular doctor knows your medical history
 Often or always0.6 (0.5–0.7)d0.7 (0.6–0.8)d0.7 (0.6–0.8)d0.6 (0.5–0.7)d0.8 (0.7–0.9)d0.8 (0.7–0.9)d
 Never, rarely, or sometimesReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Regular doctor spends enough time with you
 Often or always0.6 (0.5–0.8)d0.7 (0.6–0.8)d0.6 (0.5–0.6)d0.7 (0.6–0.8)d0.8 (0.7–0.9)d0.8 (0.7–0.9)d
 Never, rarely, or sometimesReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Regular doctor involves you as much as you want
 Often or always0.6 (0.5–0.8)d0.8 (0.6–0.9)d0.7 (0.6–0.8)d0.8 (0.6–0.9)d0.9 (0.7–1.1)0.8 (0.7–0.9)d
 Never, rarely, or sometimesReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Regular doctor explains things well
 Often or always0.6 (0.5–0.7)d0.7 (0.6–0.9)d0.8 (0.7–0.9)d0.6 (0.5–0.7)d0.8 (0.7–0.9)d0.8 (0.6–0.9)d
 Never, rarely, or sometimesReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
  • PCP = primary care physician.

  • a Parameters included in each model also included sex, household income, health status, number of doctors seen in the last year, and number of medications. Full regression analysis results are available online (Supplemental Appendix 3, available at http://www.AnnFamMed.org/content/15/2/113/suppl/DC1/).

  • b Had at least 3 gaps out of a possible 5.

  • c Gaps in detail: test/records not available at scheduled appointment; conflicting information received for medical care; unnecessary test ordered as it had already been done; specialist not informed by PCP; and PCP not informed by specialist.

  • d P <.05 after adjusting for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method.