Table 3

Hazard Ratios for Deaths Due to All Causes, All Natural Causes, and All Unnatural Causes

Cause of DeathbFollow-up PeriodSelf-Harm CohortHazard Ratioa (95% CI)
Deaths, No.% per 1,000 Person-YearsUnadjustedAdjustedc
All causes≤1 y30111.19.92 (8.63–11.40)3.59 (3.08–4.19)
>1 y6736.33.92 (3.61–4.27)1.70 (1.54–1.88)
All natural causes≤1 y1264.64.79 (3.94–5.82)1.51 (1.11–1.87)
>1 y4594.32.98 (2.69–3.29)1.25 (1.11–1.40)
All unnatural causes≤1 y1756.443.31 (33.20–56.49)21.11 (15.83–28.15)
>1 y2142.012.53 (10.48–14.99)5.65 (4.60–6.94)
  • a Two-stage hazard ratios for the self-harm cohort vs the comparison cohort.

  • b Deaths were delineated using International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes: unnatural death, codes V01-Y98; natural death, any code other than V01-Y98.

  • c Adjusted for visit frequency in previous 12 months, history of psychiatric diagnoses, history of mental health referral, history of psychotropic medication prescribing, history of alcohol misuse, and smoking status.