Table 1

Characteristics Associated With Active and Passive Decision-Making Preferences

CharacteristicAll Column %Active Row %Passive Row %Passive OR (95% CI)P Value
Age, y
65–7454.486.213.81 [Reference]
75–8433.482.717.31.29 (0.91–1.84).15
≥8512.271.828.22.39 (1.65–3.47)<.01
Female57.285.214.81 [Reference]
Male42.880.819.21.35 (0.98–1.85).06
White, non-Hispanic81.184.016.01 [Reference]
Black, non-Hispanic8.179.820.21.32 (0.91–1.92).14
Hispanic6.186.313.70.84 (0.42–1.67).61
Others4.773.027.01.92 (0.90–4.08).09
≥High school diploma78.786.313.71 [Reference]
<High school21.372.028.02.40 (1.72–3.36)<.01
Annual household income
≥ 300% of FPL33.688.611.41 [Reference]
200% to 299% of FPL23. (1.06–2.28).02
100% to 199% of FPL23.180.319.71.89 (1.18–3.00)<.01
<100% of FPL20. (1.47–3.17)<.01
Marital status
Married or living with a partner57.485.914.11 [Reference]
Widowed25.979.520.51.56 (1.14–2.12)<.01
Separated, divorced, never married16.780.319.71.48 (0.99–2.19).05
Length of residence
US born89.583.616.41 [Reference]
Move to US at age <45 y8.485.314.70.88 (0.49–1.56).65
Move to US at age ≥45 y2. (1.78–6.79).04
English proficiency
Yesa97.883.916.11 [Reference]
Noa2. (1.51–10.66)<.01
Functional status
No self-care limitationb75.786.413.61 [Reference]
Self-care limitationb24.373.626.42.23 (1.61–3.09)<.01
No mobility limitationb70.887.412.61 [Reference]
Mobility limitationb29. (1.81–3.40)<.01
No household limitationc65.787.512.51 [Reference]
Household activities limitationc34.375.224.82.27 (1.79–2.88)<.01
Physician relationship
No usual source of care4.388.012.01 [Reference]
Have usual source of care95.783.116.91.52 (0.74–3.10).25
Did not see usual source of care last year6.585.114.91 [Reference]
Saw usual source of care last year93.583.216.81.15 (0.57–2.33).70
No informal caregiver sit in medical visits64.686.313.71 [Reference]
Informal caregiver sit in medical visit35.477.822.21.78 (1.40–2.25)<.01
  • FPL = 2001 Federal poverty level.

  • Note: Unweighted random sample of 2,017 respondents. All numbers in the table are weighted estimates and not adjusted for covariates. Odds ratio estimates and corresponding P values were based on simple logistic regression models (ie, bivariate analyses) using svy command in Stata to adjust for sampling design.

  • a Survey respondents who spoke English only or who spoke English very well or well were considered as having English proficiency; those who spoke English not well or not at all were considered as not having English proficiency.

  • b Survey respondents were asked how often they perform self-care activities (eating, getting cleaned up, using toilet, and getting dressed) and mobility (getting inside, outside of house, and getting out of bed) without help in the last month. Survey respondents were considered to have limitation in self-care activities or mobility if they reported having problems performing at least 1 activity in self-care activities or mobility, respectively, without help of any person.

  • c Survey respondents also were asked whether they had help doing household activities including doing laundry, shopping, preparing hot meals, handling banking and bills, and tracking medications in the last month. Household activities limitation was identified if a respondent reported having difficulty doing at least 1 household activity independently or having someone to do for/with for at least 1 household activity because of health reasons.