Table 5

Anticholinergic Burden and Incident Dementia in Older Adults

Scale and ScoreIncident Dementia
Aged 65–74 Years (n = 8,350)Aged 75–84 Years (n = 5,637)Aged ≥85 Years (n = 815)
No.aOR (95% CI)P ValueNo.aOR (95% CI)P ValueNo.aOR (95% CI)P Value
ARS
 0 (ref)4,7491.003,1641.005111.00
 11,75710.41 (9.67–11.21)<.0011,3018.46 (7.76–9.22)<.0011766.81 (5.30–8.76)<.001
 28365.20 (4.73–5.73)<.0015564.96 (4.41–5.58)<.001633.90 (2.74–5.55)<.001
 35513.87 (3.51–4.27)<.0013633.43 (3.05–3.87)<.001372.58 (1.78–3.75)<.001
 ≥44577.27 (6.48–8.16)<.0012535.55 (4.76–6.46)<.001284.88 (3.08–7.74)<.001
ACB
 0 (ref)3,3011.002,1871.003661.00
 11,6173.13 (2.89–3.39)<.0011,0912.76 (2.51–3.05)<.0011662.51 (1.95–3.23)<.001
 27773.62 (3.27–4.00)<.0015813.30 (2.92–3.72)<.001822.44 (1.78–3.35)<.001
 31,1967.17 (6.55–7.85)<.0018175.81 (5.21–6.48)<.001984.48 (3.30–6.08)<.001
 ≥41,45910.01 (9.16–10.95)<.0019617.44 (6.68–8.28)<.0011035.16 (3.82–6.97)<.001
DBI-Ach
 0 (ref)4,7491.003,1641.005111.00
 0< score ≤ 0.52,9153.75 (3.57–3.93)<.0012,0593.50 (3.30–3.70)<.0012543.05 (2.59–3.60)<.001
 0.5< score ≤ 16863.68 (3.39–3.99)<.0014143.06 (2.75–3.39)<.001502.98 (2.21–4.03)<.001
  • aOR = adjusted odds ratio; ARS = Anticholinergic Risk Scale; ACB = Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale; DBI-Ach = Drug Burden Index - Anticholinergic component; ref=reference group.

  • Note: In multivariate generalized estimating equation models. Total sample for analysis was 14,802. Refer to Table 2 notes for description of adjustment and scales.