Table 2

Physicians’ Barriers to Incorporating Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment Into Clinical Practice, by Prescribing Category

BarrierOverallNever a PrescriberFormer PrescriberaCurrent Prescriber Not Accepting New PatientsbCurrent Prescriber Accepting New PatientscP Valued
Time constraints, %40.245.652.143.535.8.008
Lack of patient need, %
Financial/reimbursement concerns, %28.618.931.617.031.6.007
Resistance from practice partner, %13.621.830.28.89.6<.001
Lack of specialty backup for complex problems, %31.540.045.334.926.3<.001
Lack of confidence in ability to manage opioid use disorder, %9.638.<.001
Lack of available mental health or psychosocial support services, %44.448.150.449.141.4.192
Attraction of drug users to your practice, %30.538.551.735.223.3<.001
DEA intrusion, %13.818.519.
Diversion or misuse of medication concerns, %48.442.653.055.846.3.185
  • DEA=Drug Enforcement Administration.

  • Note: Missing data: time, n = 373; patient need, n = 379; financial, n = 380; resistance, n = 391; specialty backup, n = 379; confidence, n = 381; available mental health services, n = 376; attraction of drug users, n = 384; DEA intrusion, n = 386; diversion, n = 477.

  • a Have prescribed buprenorphine, but not currently treating patients or accepting new opioid use disorder patients.

  • b Have prescribed buprenorphine, currently treating patients, but not accepting new opioid use disorder patients (may or may not have reached the patient limit of their waiver).

  • c Currently treating patients and accepting new opioid use disorder patients.

  • d Overall 4-category χ2 test.

  • e Fisher exact test.